NOVEMBER 14, 1962 – FIRST PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA SHARES HIS BIRTH DATE WITH SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE
On Wednesday, November 14, 2018, I pay my respectful tributes to India’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. On November 14, 1962, he shared his birth date with Special Frontier Force without hosting any public ceremony.
Jawaharlal Nehru was born to Motilal Nehru and Swaruprani Thussu on November 14, 1889, in Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh. His birthday is celebrated as Children’s Day. Jawaharlal Nehru remained in office (as prime minister) until his death in 1964.
November 14, Jawaharlal Nehru’s birth anniversary, is celebrated as Children’s Day in India
President Ram Nath Kovind, Prime Minister Narendra Modi and senior Congress leader Sonia Gandhi on Wednesday paid tributes to India’s first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru on his 129th birth anniversary.
Jawaharlal Nehru was born to Motilal Nehru and Swaruprani Thussu on November 14, 1889, in Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh. His birthday is celebrated as Children’s Day. Jawaharlal Nehru remained in office (as prime minister) until his death in 1964.
Former president Pranab Mukherjee, former vice president Hamid Ansari, former prime minister Manmohan Singh, and Sonia Gandhi paid their respects to Jawaharlal Nehru at Shantivan.
“Remembering Shri Jawaharlal Nehru, our first Prime Minister, on his birth anniversary,” read a post on the official Twitter handle of the President Kovind.
PM Modi recalled Jawaharlal Nehru’s contribution to India’s freedom struggle and during his tenure as prime minister. “Remembering our first Prime Minister, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru on his birth anniversary. We recall his contribution to our freedom struggle and during his tenure as Prime Minister,” he tweeted.
Balloons in the colors of the Indian flag were released amid playing of bands and singing of patriotic songs by school children at Jawaharlal Nehru’s memorial Shantivan.
Lok Sabha Speaker Sumitra Mahajan led parliamentarians in paying tributes to the first prime minister at the Central Hall of Parliament.
Besides Ms. Mahajan, senior leaders LK Advani, Ghulam Nabi Azad, Leader of Opposition Mallikarjun Kharge, Union minister Vijay Goel, former Haryana chief minister Bhupinder Singh Hooda among others paid homage to Jawaharlal Nehru.
NOVEMBER 11, 2018 – HONORING THE VETERANS OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE
Veteran’s Day is a tribute to military veterans who have served in the U.S. Armed Forces. Originating in 1919 when President Woodrow Wilson marked a year since the end of the First World War, the day coincides with other days of remembrance around the world including Armistice Day in the United Kingdom and Remembrance Day across the Commonwealth of Nations. Not to be confused with Memorial Day, which honors those who died while in service, Veterans Day honors all military veterans, including the living.
On Sunday, November 11, 2018, I honor the veterans of Special Frontier Force while Tibet, India, and the United States remain silent about the contributions of the living and the dead veterans of Special Frontier Force in support of Freedom.
In my analysis, the military veterans of Special Frontier Force serve the United States for they use the military weapons and military supplies provided by the United States. A soldier is always identified by the military weapon that he uses in his fight against the enemy.
Many Americans mistakenly believe that Veterans Day is the day America sets aside to honor American military personnel who died in battle or as a result of wounds sustained from combat. That’s not true. Memorial Day is the day set aside to honor America’s war dead.
Veterans Day, on the other hand, honors ALL American veterans, both living and dead. In fact, Veterans Day is largely intended to thank LIVING veterans for dedicated and loyal service to their country. November 11 of each year is the day that we ensure veterans know that we deeply appreciate the sacrifices they have made in the lives to keep our country free.
To commemorate the ending of the “Great War” (World War I), an “unknown soldier” was buried in the highest place of honor in both England and France (in England, Westminster Abbey; in France, the Arc de Triomphe). These ceremonies took place on November 11th, celebrating the ending of World War I hostilities at 11 a.m., November 11, 1918 (the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month). This day became known internationally as “Armistice Day”.
In 1921, the United States of America followed France and England by laying to rest the remains of a World War I American soldier — his name “known but to God” — on a Virginia hillside overlooking the city of Washington DC and the Potomac River. This site became known as the “Tomb of the Unknown Soldier,” and today is called the “Tomb of the Unknowns.” Located in Arlington National Cemetery, the tomb symbolizes dignity and reverence for the American veteran.
In America, November 11th officially became known as Armistice Day through an act of Congress in 1926. It wasn’t until 12 years later through a similar act that Armistice Day became a national holiday.
The entire World thought that World War I was the “War to end all wars.” Had this been true, the holiday might still be called Armistice Day today. That dream was shattered in 1939 when World War II broke out in Europe. More than 400,000 American service members died during that horrific war.
Veterans Day Creation
In 1954, President Eisenhower signed a bill proclaiming November 11 as Veterans Day and called upon Americans everywhere to rededicate themselves to the cause of peace. He issued a Presidential Order directing the head of the Veterans Administration (now called the Department of Veterans Affairs) to form a Veterans Day National Committee to organize and oversee the national observance of Veterans Day.
Veterans Day National Ceremony
At exactly 11 a.m., each November 11th, a color guard, made up of members from each of the military branches, renders honors to America’s war dead during a heart-moving ceremony at the Tomb of the Unknowns in Arlington National Cemetery.
The President or his representative places a wreath at the Tomb and a bugler sounds Taps. The balance of the ceremony, including a “Parade of Flags” by numerous veterans service organizations, takes place inside the Memorial Amphitheater, adjacent to the Tomb.
In addition to planning and coordinating the National Veterans Day Ceremony, the Veterans Day National Committee supports a number of Veterans Day Regional Sites. These sites conduct Veterans Day celebrations that provide excellent examples for other communities to follow.
Veterans Day Observance
Veterans Day is always observed on November 11, regardless of the day of the week on which it falls. The Veterans Day National Ceremony is always held on Veterans Day itself, even if the holiday falls on a Saturday or Sunday. However, like all other federal holidays, when it falls on a non-workday — Saturday or Sunday — the federal government employees take the day off on Monday (if the holiday falls on Sunday) or Friday (if the holiday falls on Saturday).
This federal law does not apply to state and local governments. They are free to determine local government closings (including school closings) locally. As such, there is no legal requirement that schools close on Veterans Day, and many do not. However, most schools hold Veterans Day activities on Veterans Day and throughout the week of the holiday to honor American veterans.
Allied Veterans Day Around the World
Many other countries honor their veterans on November 11th of each year. However, the name of the holiday and the types of ceremonies differ from the Veterans Day activities in the United States.
Canada, Australia, and Great Britain refer to their holidays as “Remembrance Day.” Canada and Australia observe the day on November 11, and Great Britain conducts their ceremonies on the Sunday nearest to November 11th.
In Canada, the observance of “Remembrance Day” is actually quite similar to the United States in that the day is set aside to honor all of Canada’s veterans, both living and dead. One notable difference is that many Canadians wear a red poppy flower on November 11 to honor their war dead, while the “red poppy” tradition is observed in the United States on Memorial Day.
In Australia, “Remembrance Day” is very much like America’s Memorial Day, in that it’s considered a day to honor Australian veterans who died in the war.
In Great Britain, the day is commemorated by church services and parades of ex-service members in Whitehall, a wide ceremonial avenue leading from London’s Parliament Square to Trafalgar Square. Wreaths of poppies are left at the Cenotaph, a war memorial in Whitehall, which was built after the First World War. At the Cenotaph and elsewhere in the country, a two-minute silence is observed at 11 a.m., to honor those who lost their lives in wars.
OLD AGE MONTHLY RETIREMENT INCOME BENEFIT IS A HUMAN RIGHT
At the Headquarters Establishment No. 22 also known as Special Frontier Force, I served to defend the Human Rights of men who are neither citizens nor refugees of the United States which employed us. For that reason, I examine the Human Rights of workers who work in the United States without being citizens or refugees.
The most important characteristic of Labor is that it consumes time while the man performing Labor experiences the relentless aging process without any concern for his nationality status. Providing income security in Old Age is a humanitarian concern for it defends the human dignity of all people who suffer from the inevitable consequences of the eternal Law of Aging.
Having served the US exposing my life to extreme risk of premature death, I must expose ‘The Clinton Curse’ that endangers the lives of all the US residents irrespective of their Nationality Status.
President Bill Clinton’s Slavery Mandate of 1996 constitutes disobedience of LORD’s Commandment to choose Life and to avoid the danger of eternal Death.
One of the biggest misconceptions about undocumented immigrants is that they don’t pay any taxes. In his first address to Congress, President Trump set the tone for his coming immigration agenda when he said immigration costs US taxpayers “billions of dollars a year.”
A 2017 Gallup poll that asked survey respondents “whether immigrants to the United States are making the [tax] situation in the country better or worse” found that 41 percent said, “worse,” while only 23 percent said “better” (33 percent said they had “no effect”).
The reality is far different. Immigrants who are authorized to work in the United States pay the same taxes as US citizens. And, contrary to the persistent myth, undocumented immigrants do in fact pay taxes too. Millions of undocumented immigrants file tax returns each year, and they are paying taxes for benefits they can’t even use.
The best estimates come from research by the Institute of Taxation and Economic Policy, a Washington, DC, think tank, which suggests that about half of undocumented workers in the United States file income tax returns. The most recent IRS data, from 2015, shows that the agency received 4.4 million income tax returns from workers who don’t have Social Security numbers, which includes a large number of undocumented immigrants. That year, they paid $23.6 billion in income taxes.
· Those undocumented workers paid taxes for benefits they can’t even use, like Social Security and Medicare. They also aren’t eligible for benefits like the earned income tax credit. But the IRS still expects unauthorized immigrants to file their taxes, and many of them do so.
Filing taxes helps immigrants create a paper trail to show when they entered the country and how long they’ve been contributing tax dollars. Many are hoping it will help them get legal status one day. That has happened in past reform efforts, and one of the first requirements is usually to prove that a person has been paying taxes. That was the case for the undocumented youth granted temporary work permits under President Obama’s deportation relief program, known as DACA.
· So, despite all the political rhetoric, undocumented immigrants are not a drain or burden on the government.
How unauthorized immigrants pay their taxes
In April 2017, I visited Casa de Maryland in Rockville, Maryland, which hosts two federally subsidized centers where low-income workers can file their taxes for free. That year, they had helped about 200 undocumented immigrants file their taxes, and many were waiting in line with their paperwork when I stopped by.
I watched tax preparer Earvin Gonzalez go through the process of helping undocumented immigrants file their taxes. Maria, whose last name is being withheld because of her immigration status, handed him a folder with tax documents from two jobs. Her W-2 showed that a housecleaning company paid her $17,288 in 2015.
As Gonzalez filled out her information in a computer software program, a green box popped up on the computer screen: “Taxpayer’s Social Security number is not valid.”
· That wasn’t a surprise. The 36-year-old woman from El Salvador is undocumented, and she told me that she made up the Social Security number on the W-2 form because she doesn’t have one. Her employer never asked for identification to verify it, she says. Instead, she has an Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN), created by the IRS in 1996 so people who aren’t allowed to work in the United States could still file taxes on any income they earned. (The IRS does not share ITIN information with immigration authorities.)
Maria said she applied for an ITIN number shortly after arriving illegally in the United States from El Salvador in 2009. People told her that having a record of paying taxes would help her with her case to gain legal status if immigration reform happened.
Comprehensive immigration reform failed in Congress, but Maria is still paying her taxes every year. “I think it’s important, and all my relatives pay their taxes too,” she told me.
· Last year, her tax documents also included two 1099 forms, for her second job as a contractor.
“What kind of jobs were these?” Gonzalez asked her in Spanish.
“After cleaning houses, I would go lay concrete in parking lots,” she said.
Those two jobs brought in a total of $24,845 last year, and Maria still needed to pay taxes on that income. Gonzalez entered some deductions, such as the $1,500 she spent on equipment to pour and level concrete and the 12,000 miles she drove between job sites. Maria, who is a single mom, claimed two dependents: her 16-year-old son and 13-year-old daughter. With her ITIN number, she was able to claim child tax credits, but not the earned income tax credit, the major federal tax credit for low-income working families.
· In the end, Maria owed $1,131 in income taxes to the state of Maryland and $775 to the federal government. She said she had some money saved up because she knew she would have a tax bill at the end of the year from the contracting jobs. But she said she will probably get on a payment plan with the IRS. If Maria had qualified for the earned income tax credit, her tax bill would probably have been about $500 lower.
Unauthorized immigrants boost funding for the Social Security system
It’s true that not all undocumented immigrants pay federal income taxes, because the government has no way to keep track of their under-the-table earnings. The IRS can withhold taxes from those hired with fake Social Security numbers, but workers who get paid in cash could simply choose not to report it, unless they voluntarily file a return with an ITIN number.
Still, all undocumented workers fund public schools and local government services by paying sales and property taxes like everyone else. The Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy estimates that they pay about $11.7 billion a year in state and local taxes.
And workers who get a paycheck, like Maria, still have payroll taxes for Medicare and Social Security withheld from their paycheck, even if they put a fake Social Security number on their W-2 form. The IRS estimates that unauthorized workers pay about $9 billion in payroll taxes annually.
In Maria’s case, the W-2 form showed that she paid $1,072 into Social Security and $251 into Medicare, two social safety net programs she may never benefit from.
A portion of the payroll tax withheld from undocumented immigrants — like all workers — goes to the retirement trust fund at the Social Security Administration. In 2013, the agency reviewed how much money undocumented workers contributed to the retirement trust fund. The number was astonishing: $13 billion in one year.
The chief actuary of the Social Security Administration, Stephen Goss, estimates that about 1.8 million immigrants were working with fake or stolen Social Security cards in 2010, and he expects that number to reach 3.4 million by 2040.
“We estimate that earnings by unauthorized immigrants result in a net positive effect on Social Security financial status generally,” Goss concluded in the 2013 review.
These numbers are a stark contrast to the often repeated rhetoric that undocumented immigrants are a drain on the US economy. Even most Americans seem to think so — in a 2014 Reuters poll, 63 percent of people surveyed said they believe undocumented immigrants burdened the economy.
Emiliano, a 57-year-old undocumented day laborer from Honduras, told me that he knows many people assume he doesn’t pay his taxes. He doesn’t care. He just hopes one day it will help him get legal status.
When I told him the chances don’t look good under the Trump administration, he shrugged.
PRAYERS FOR THE DAWN OF FREEDOM AT THE GRAND SEAT OF THE SUN
“Nyingchi” means “the Grand Seat of the Sun” in the language of Tibetan. It is noted for its green mountains and clear water. The Himalaya and Tangula Mountains wind their ways from west to east like two colossal dragons and join the Henduan Mountains in the east. The city of Nyingchi, lying in the southeast of Tibet, is in the embrace of these three mountain ranges. Nyingchi is also called “the Switzerland of Tibet” and “the Jiangnan of Tibet” (Jiangnan means the fertile and prosperous area in the south of the Yangtze.)
The primitive forest of Nyingchi is well preserved in which one can easily find the upright ancient plateau Tibetan cypress, the Himalaya cold cedar, the “living plant fossil”- the tree bracken and a vast variety of azaleas. Nyingchi is therefore entitled “the Natural Museum and “the Natural Gene Pool”. The area around the Buqun Lake is deemed to be the place where the wild man was living.
I am offering my prayers for the dawn of freedom at ‘The Grand Seat of the Sun’.
SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION – NOTICE OF SLAVERY AWARD ON OCTOBER 18, 2018
Social Security Administration, Great Lakes Program Service Center, Chicago wields its long baseball bat to hit the Septuagenarian Senior Alien with its Notice of Slavery Award on October 18, 2018.
Social Security Administration writes to Senior Alien to inform:
“What You Should Know
We changed your monthly benefit to $1,605.20 as of January 2018. We found that your prior amount was incorrect.
We cannot pay you monthly benefits at this time.
We changed your benefit amount to give you credit for your 2017 earnings. We did not include these earnings when we figured your benefit amount before.”
It reminds me of the ‘Curse’ uttered by LORD God Creator in the Book of Genesis, Chapter 3, verses 17 to 19:
In my analysis, it is very easy to punish the Senior Alien by simply withholding his monthly retirement income benefit payment and force him to live the rest of his life through painful toil. I remind my readers to give attention to God’s pronouncement. The ground is “Cursed” to produce thorns and thistles for the Senior Alien as well as all the others who depend on the ground for their living.
SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION – GREAT LAKES PROGRAM SERVICE CENTER – HAROLD WASHINGTON SOCIAL SECURITY CENTER – NOTICE OF SLAVERY AWARD:
· #CardPlayingDay :
GREAT LAKES PROGRAM SERVICE CENTER – HAROLD WASHINGTON SOCIAL SECURITY CENTER – NOTICE OF SLAVERY AWARD: #CARDPLAYINGDAY FOR RETIREMENT INSURANCE BENEFIT, WHO IS HOLDING THE CARDS??? WHO IS PLAYING THE GAME??? WHAT ARE THE RIGHTS OF SUBSCRIBER TO PLAY THE CARD GAME???
I want to tell my readers that the purpose of this article is not that of blaming any person who serves in the Social Security Administration(SSA). I truly appreciate their service and their contributions to the country and to the community.
It must be recognized that SSA has to perform its functions using the rules and regulations formulated by the applicable US laws passed by the US Congress. Ultimately, the problems reported in this article can only be resolved if the US Congress reviews the 1996 amendment to the Social Security Act of 1935.
This article pertains to the Senior Alien (#SeniorAlien) who received his Medicare Card with Medicare coverage effective from 07-01-2013.
On October 13, 2016, SSA informed the Senior Alien of his Social Security Benefits. His claim for Monthly Retirement Benefit changed to $1,508.60 as of January 2016. But, Social Security Administration cannot pay him his Monthly Benefits.
GREAT LAKES PROGRAM SERVICE CENTER – NOTICE OF SLAVERY AWARD: HAROLD WASHINGTON SOCIAL SECURITY CENTER, CHICAGO GETS UNIQUE PLACE OF DISTINCTION IN THE US HISTORY FOR ITS NOTICE OF AWARD, DATE. OCTOBER 13, 2016 AND AUGUST 16, 2014 OVERTURNED PRESIDENT ABRAHAM LINCOLN’S EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION THAT ABOLISHED SLAVERY IN THE UNITED STATES. THIS DECISION VIOLATES THE US CONSTITUTION’S 13TH AMENDMENT.
GREAT LAKES PROGRAM SERVICE CENTER – NOTICE OF SLAVERY AWARD: THE NOTICE OF AWARD DATED OCTOBER 13, 2016 REVISED THE DECISION SENT ON AUGUST 16, 2014. BOTH IMPOSE SLAVERY, INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE, AND FORCED LABOR AS DEFINED BY THE PROVISIONS CONTAINED IN CHAPTER 77, TITLE 18 OF THE US CODE, SECTIONS, 1581, 1584, AND 1589 AND VIOLATES THE US CONSTITUTION’S 13TH AMENDMENT.
The word ‘DECISION’ is defined as the act of deciding a question or a claim by giving a judgment; it is a conclusion made with the firmness of mind, and it describes a determination reached or given. Social Security Administration, Great Lakes Program Service Center made a “DECISION” and sent a Notice of Award on October 13, 2016, which applied a change to its earlier Decision on August 16, 2014. This could be a very historical decision for it overturns the Emancipation Proclamation made by the US President Abraham Lincoln to abolish Slavery in the United States.
GREAT LAKES PROGRAM SERVICE CENTER – NOTICE OF SLAVERY AWARD: THE NOTICE OF AWARD, DATE. OCTOBER 13, 2016 AND EARLIER NOTICE ON AUGUST 16, 2014 COMMUNICATE A DECISION MADE BY SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION. THE IMMEDIATE CONSEQUENCE OF THE DECISION IS THAT OF FORCING, COMPELLING, COERCING A SENIOR ALIEN TO PERFORM LABOR AGAINST HIS WILL BY CREATING “CLIMATE OF FEAR.” IT MUST BE NOTED THAT THE SENIOR ALIEN IS ISSUED A MEDICARE CARD AND THE MEDICARE COVERAGE IS EFFECTIVE FROM 07-01-2013. THE DECISION VIOLATES THE US CONSTITUTION’S 13TH AMENDMENT.
The Notice of Award communicated the ‘Decision’, the Determination, or Conclusion reached by Social Security Administration(SSA), Great Lakes Program Service Center, Harold Washington Social Security Center, 600 West Madison Street, Chicago IL 60661-2474 on August 16, 2014, and a Revised Decision on October 13, 2016.
1. The Decision has approved the applicant’s Claim for Retirement Benefit and the entitlement date is given as October 2014. It further added the applicant’s current monthly benefit rate of $1347.80 is changed to $1,508.60 as of January 2016. SSA issued a Medicare Card to the Senior Alien and the Medicare coverage is effective from 07-01-2013. However, the Decision is silent or mute for it has not shared any fact or information that has guided the Decision-making process and it fails to establish the legal basis and information that shaped this judgment. For reasons of fairness, clarity and to ensure the practice of the principle called ‘Equal Protection Under Law’, the Decision must explain the legal basis for this approval. The Decision must disclose the US Law that may provide the authority or sanctioning power to arrive at the Decision that grants the approval of the Claim for Social Security Retirement Insurance Benefit.
2. The Part-2 of the above Decision states that the Department cannot pay the monthly benefit of the Retirement Insurance. It must be noted that the Social Security Retirement Insurance Plan stands on the support of two pillars;
These are 1. The Contributions made by the Employee and his Employer as mandated by the Federal Insurance Contributions Act or FICA, and 2. The Age of the Plan Subscriber for the subscriber is paid monthly benefit after attaining a predetermined qualifying age called the ‘full retirement age’.
All employees working in the US are required by the Federal Law to subscribe to this SSA Retirement Insurance with or without immigration status. For example, US citizen who may not have earned enough ‘Credits’ and who may not have reached the qualifying age( currently at 66-years), is not eligible to apply for this Retirement Benefit. The Rules for ‘Lawful Presence’ or of ‘Immigrant Status’ do not establish the eligibility criteria to subscribe and contribute to the Social Security Public Trust Fund. These Rules for Lawful Presence in the US make the distinction between US citizens and others residing in the US performing work to earn their hourly wages.
SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION – NOTICE OF SLAVERY AWARD. BEHOLD THE MAN. JOHN 19:5. SOCIAL SECURITY IMPOSES SLAVERY, SERFDOM, AND INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE VIOLATING RIGHT TO LIFE AND FREEDOM.
GREAT LAKES PROGRAM SERVICE CENTER – THE NOTICE OF SLAVERY AWARD: SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MAKES DECISION ON AUGUST 16, 2014 AND OCTOBER 13, 2016 TO LEGALLY IMPOSE BURDEN OF INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE ON SENIOR ALIEN WHO IS NOT A CONVICTED FELON. SENIOR ALIEN WAS ISSUED MEDICARE CARD AND MEDICARE COVERAGE EFFECTIVE FROM JULY 01, 2014. BUT, SUSPENDS PAYMENT OF MONTHLY RETIREMENT INCOME BENEFIT.
I am asking my readers to behold the Senior Alien who has to live and experience consequences of the Notice of Award sent by Great Lakes Program Service Center – Harold Washington Social Security Center.
A number of provisions in the US Code target the problems of Involuntary Servitude, Slavery, and Forced Labor. These provisions are contained in Chapter 77 of Title 18. Section 1581 prohibits using force, the threat of force or the threat of legal coercion to compel a person to work against his/her will. Section 1584 of Title 18 makes it unlawful to hold a person in a condition of Slavery, that is a condition of compulsory service or labor against his/her will by use of actual force, threats of force, or threats of legal coercion. Section 1584 also prohibits compelling a person to work against his will by creating a “Climate of Fear” through the use of force, the threat of force, or the threat of legal coercion( i.e., if you don’t work, I’ll call the Immigration officials) which is sufficient to compel service against a person’s will. Section 1589 deals with Forced Labor and it broadens the definition of the kinds of coercion that might result in Forced Labor, whoever knowingly provides or obtains the labor or services of a person. 1. By threats of serious harm to or physical restraint against that person or another person, 2. By means of any scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause the person to believe that if the person did not perform such labor or services, that person or another person would suffer serious harm or physical restraint; or 3. By means of the abuse or threatened abuse of Law or the Legal Process.
The Notice of Award violates the provisions contained in Chapter 77 of Title 18 US Code. By suspending Monthly Benefit Payments, Social Security Administration used the force of its authority to legally coerce Senior Alien to perform labor against his will if he desires to live in the US. The Decision ‘NOT’ to pay the Monthly Benefit creates a “Climate of Fear.”
The Senior Alien lives in the condition named Slavery for the Government Agency exercised power to withhold the Senior Alien’s property or financial assets invested in the Social Security Public Trust Fund. In other words, the Social Security Administration’s Notice of Award communicates a Decision causing the Demise of the Emancipation Proclamation abolishing Slavery in the US.
THE FLAT EARTH – THE GRAND ILLUSION IS THE FUNDAMENTAL BASIS FOR HUMAN EXISTENCE
In my analysis, the term ‘belief’ or ‘disbelief’ must be defined in the context of knowing the Ultimate, Unchanging Reality.
I ask my readers to carefully interpret scientific information and scientific facts to gain Pure Knowledge and Perfect Wisdom that helps man to define his faith or belief in the Ultimate, Unchanging, Eternal Reality often called LORD God Creator.
The celestial object called planet Earth is not an everlasting reality of God’s creation. It is experiencing constant change since the time of its formation and is subject to eventual dissolution along with Sun and other members of our Solar Family.
I account for the reality of man’s mortal existence on the surface of a very fast spinning object called Earth on the following fundamental prerequisites:
1. Man must not have direct sensory experience of Earth’s real shape and real speed. In fact, man needs the experience of the flat disc all the days of his life.
2. The duration or lifetime of man’s mortal existence is determined by man’s sensory experience of the apparent motions of Sun and Moon caused by Earth’s Rotational Spin.
3. The major biological rhythm called Sun Rhythm, Circadian Rhythm, or Diurnal Rhythm that operates a myriad of man’s living functions is synchronized with alternating periods of light and darkness called Day and Night while in reality, the Sun is shining all the time ever since it was created.
I ask my readers to reflect on scientific facts and information with due diligence. Even if I fly in a plane during the entire period of my earthly existence, my human body would still refuse to live according to the reality of Earth’s Shape and Speed described by Science. In my view, man has no freedom to experience ‘unconditioned’ existence. Man’s existence is always conditioned. The Mortal Existence is conditioned by the Grand Illusion. Man can find hope from God’s promise of everlasting life granted by Belief which requires no validation by Science.
If you picture Earth as a ball spinning through space. the folks who recently gathered at a park in Arcadia, California, are eager to argue: you’re wrong! Earth is actually “flatter than a pancake,” said Nathan Thompson, part of a movement of people who call themselves Flat Earthers.
They insist the Earth is, well, flat.
We’re living, these folks say, on a disk floating through space, with a tiny sun hovering just overhead. But what about the Earth’s curvature? “I don’t know. No one’s ever seen it,” said one man.
“The perimeter of Flat Earth is a wall of ice,” said Thompson.
“That’s what’s holding in the ocean?” asked correspondent Brook Silva-Braga.
“That’s what’s containing everything,” he said.
And what’s underneath? “Well, you know, we haven’t dug that deep,” said a Flat Earther named Rene.
Netta Hagler, who arranged the meet-up of the Flat Earthers, questioned the fact that Earth is spinning through space at 1,000 miles per hour. “But we can’t feel it. I don’t believe I’m spinning right now. No,” said Hagler.
Patricia Steere, who is one of what you might call the “stars” of today’s Flat Earth movement (which mostly orbits around YouTube), told Silva-Braga, “Probably most people who hear of it will laugh at it, think we’re idiots. But we’re not idiots; we’re intelligent people from all walks of life and all ages.”
Flat Earthers have brought levels onto planes (to prove they are flying level), and zoomed in on the moon and “found” clouds supposedly drifting behind it. “Moon is only a few miles up,” said one Flat Earth YouTuber. “We’ve been lied to on such a massive scale!”
Steere agreed to play a game of “20 Questions: Cosmic Edition” with Silva-Braga.
Photos of the Earth from space? “Completely and utterly false,” she said.
Is the sun 93 million miles away? “No, the sun is not as far away as we’ve been told, nor is the moon. They’re probably about the same size.”
Pictures of astronauts floating around on the space station? “Completely fake. Harnesses, wires.”
Did we really go to the moon? “No. We didn’t go to the moon,” said Steere. “And we don’t have a rover on Mars. And we didn’t do a fly-by of Pluto. We’ve never been to space. Period. End of.”
In short, Flat Earthers don’t believe much of anything unless they see it for themselves. They believe NASA is just part of a broad conspiracy.
According to Steere, “It’s a giant game of chess. We, all of us in humanity, are the pawns. Part of the whole Flat Earth thing is keeping us locked down, not knowledgeable about who we are, who we really are as people, and what we’re capable of.”
National security expert Tom Nichols, who teaches at the Harvard Extension School, takes a dim view of Flat Earth. He told Silva-Braga he thinks something new is happening: “People have really become obsessed with the idea that, if it’s not part of their direct experience, it can’t be true.
“People have lost faith in experts. We’ve developed a kind of reverse snobbery that says if you have a great deal of education, if you’re at a well-known institution, by definition you must be a liar!”
Nichols poured his expertise into a book about “The Death of Expertise” (Oxford University Press).
He said, “Oftentimes younger people will say, ‘Well, the internet is just a big library.’ That’s wrong; the internet is a big dumpster. There’s no guarantee that anything you find on it is true.”
“It’s more democratic; isn’t that good?” asked Silva-Braga.
“No. When it comes to knowledge, more democratic is not good, absolutely not. We don’t decide how fast things accelerate in a vacuum by voting on it.”
So, in this “Show-it-to-me” world, we traveled to the Southern California desert, to meet, for ourselves, the one man who is boldly going where no Flat Earther has gone before.
Meet Michael Hughes – “Mad Mike” to his fans. Limo driver, self-styled daredevil, and most recently, do-it-yourself Flat Earth explorer. “I am their best hope. I am the best hope to prove the Flat Earth,” he said.
“The Flat Earth thing is like everything else to me. I just want people to question everything. Question what your congressman is doing, your city council. Question what really happened during the Civil War. What happened during 9/11.”
And that rocket sitting outside his house? Mad Mike built it himself.
Silva-Braga asked, “How does one go about finding out how to build a rocket?”
“Trial and error,” said Hughes. “That’s a bunch of it, you know?”
“You don’t get a lot of second chances, though, in the rocket business.”
“No, you don’t! Especially at about 1,800 feet up.”
This past March, Mad Mike actually climbed into his steam-powered rocket and set off to see what he could see. And to the surprise of almost everyone, Hughes took flight and landed more or less intact.
True, 1,800 feet is not nearly high enough to properly survey the planet. But Mad Mike now has a plan to go 62 miles up, to the edge of space, where he’ll be able to see (or not see) the curve of Earth.
A model hanging in his house shows how he hopes to strap himself to a contraption involving balloons and rockets and blast off. “The first 20 miles will be with a balloon,” he said. “And after that, my rocket will fire, pull me from the balloon, and then actually once the rocket quits firing, I will actually fly like Superman for, like, another 30 seconds with no power, just up into the atmosphere.”
And if he somehow pulls that off, Mad Mike says he’ll disprove centuries of science once and for all.
“I expect to see a flat disk up there,” he said. “I don’t have an agenda. If it’s a round Earth or a ball, I’m going to come down and say, ‘Hey guys, I’m bad. It’s a ball, OK?'”
And with that, we put the ball back in professor Nichols’ court.
“The world looks flat. I look out my window, I don’t see a curve,” said Silva-Braga.
Nichols replied, “Right, the world looks flat. And who are you to tell me that my perception is no better than anyone else’s? And I think that’s a really dangerous thing, because, you know, the Earth is round, and you’ll learn that the hard way if you try and fly an airplane!”
SHARAD NAVRATRI 2018 – BLESSINGS OF GODDESS OF SUPREME POWER
Puma Punku Divine Society celebrates the One, and Only One God as Father and Mother Principle at the same time. This Unity of God allows Personification of God as Male and Female, as Father and Mother giving Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility in the living Human Experience. In Indian Tradition, Sharad Durga Navratri Celebration of 2018 begins on Wednesday, October 10, and concludes on the 10th day, the morning of Friday, October 19. This ‘Nine-Night’ Hindu festival is popularly known as ‘Dussehra’. This festival is observed twice in a year, at the beginning of Summer Season and at the beginning of Autumn Season and the days are determined by Lunar Calendar. The first set of 3-nights are dedicated to Goddess Durga( personification of Energy/Power/Force or ‘Shakti’ glorified as Divine Protector, Defender, or Savior), the second set of 3-nights are dedicated to Goddess Lakshmi( personification of material wealth, prosperity, and well-being), and the third set of 3-nights are dedicated to Goddess Sarasvati( personification of Pure Knowledge and Perfect Wisdom). I wish my readers Good Health, Prosperity, Peace and Happiness invoking the Blessings of Goddess of Supreme Power.
DEVI NAVRATRI – NINE-NIGHT CELEBRATION OF DIVINE POWER, LOVE, MERCY, GRACE, AND COMPASSION TO SECURE HEALTH, WEALTH, WISDOM, AND PERFECT WELL-BEING OF MANKIND. In Physics, Power/Energy/Force is not associated with gender. But, when living things exist as male and female, description of Power/Energy/Force may have gender association. In Indian tradition, ‘Deva’ means God and ‘Devi’ means Goddess. Devi in Indian tradition is the personification of God’s Supreme Power/Force/ Energy or ‘SHAKTI’. To fully account for human existence, man needs two distinct or separate Principles that come together to produce the harmonious singular identity of the man. The issue is not about God’s gender. Father Principle is called Originating Principle. Mother Principle is called Source Principle, for Mother is Source of Matter, Energy, and Knowledge to establish Life. Father provides Identity to human form, Mother provides Substance, the structural and functional basis of human form.
DEVI NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GOD IS THE SUPREME BEING AND DESCRIBED AS OMNIPOTENT. THIS POTENCY OR POWER IS CALLED ‘SHAKTI’ IN SANSKRIT LANGUAGE. DEVI IS PERSONIFICATION OF ‘SHAKTI’. SHE DISPLAYED THIS GREAT POWER IN SLAYING OF A DEMON KING CALLED “MAHISHASURA.”
During 2018, Indians celebrate ‘DEVI NAVRATRI’ or ‘SHARAD NAVRATRI’ from Wednesday, October 10, to Friday, October 19. The term ‘Nav’ or ‘Nava’ means Nine. ‘Ratri’ means night. This celebration happens in a month called ‘ASVAYUJA’ ( or ASHWAYUJA – September – October), the month in which Full Moon Day is associated with the first star (Tithi) called ‘ASVINI’ in Indian Astrology.
DEVI NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. DEVI OR SHAKTI IS OFTEN CALLED ‘DURGA’ FOR SHE IS EMBODIMENT OF GREAT STRENGTH. SHE IS ALSO CALLED BHADRAKALI, JAGADAMBA, ANNAPURNA, SARVAMANGALA, BHAIRAVI, CHANDIKA, LALITA, BHAVANI, AND MOOKAMBIKA.
Devi or Shakti is often called ‘DURGA’ for She is the embodiment of great strength. She is also called BHADRAKALI, JAGADAMBA, ANNAPURNA, SARVAMANGALA, BHAIRAVI, CHANDIKA, LALITA, BHAVANI, AND MOOKAMBIKA. During the 9-Night or Navratri festival, Indians worship nine different forms of Goddess Durga with 1,000 names. She is simply adored as Divine Mother and often addressed as ‘MOTHER'(“MATA” or “MAA”) whatever may be the name or form She assumed on different occasions.
DEVI NAVRATRI – SHARAD NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NINE DIFFERENT FORMS OF MOTHER DURGA OR SHAKTI ARE REMEMBERED WITH DEVOTION AND ADORATION.
DEVI NAVRATRI, OCTOBER 2018 CALENDAR:
Goddess Shakti has three Supreme Forms called DURGA, SARASVATI, and LAKSHMI. In India, traditions vary from region to region. First 3 – days of Navratri are dedicated to Goddess Durga, following 3-days are dedicated to Goddess Lakshmi and concluding 3-days are dedicated to Goddess Sarasvati or Goddess of Knowledge, Wisdom, and Speech. On Monday, October 15, 2018, the Sixth Day or Shashti ‘NAVARATRI’ is dedicated to Goddess called ‘KATYANI'(legendary daughter of a devotee by name ‘KATA’). On this day, Goddess Sarasvati is worshipped for this day is associated with a Nakshatra(Star) called ‘MOOLA’.
1. Day -1, Wednesday, October 10. First day of the Bright Half of Ashvin. Navratri Begins as Pratipada or Ghatsthapana. This day is Observed as Chandra Darshan. Shailaputri Puja. 2. Day – 2, Thursday, October 11. Dwitiya, Brahmacharini Puja. 3. Day – 3, Friday, October 12. Tritiya, Sindoor Tritiya, Chandraghanta Puja. 4. Day – 4, Saturday, October 13. Chaturthi, Kushmanda Puja, Varad Vinayak Chaturthi. 5. Day – 5, Sunday, October 14. Panchami, Skanda Mata Puja, Upang Lalita Vrat, Lalita Panchami. 6. Day – 6. Monday, October 15. Shashti, Kathyayini Puja, Sarasvati Awahan, Sarasvati Puja. 7. Day – 7. Tuesday, October 16. Saptami, Kalaratri,, Shubhankara Puja, Sarasvati Balidan, Maha Lakshmi Puja. 8. Day – 8. Wednesday, October 17.. Mahashtami, Durga Ashtami, Annapurna Parikrama, Sarasvati Visarjan, Mahagauri Puja, Durga Puja. 9. Day – 9. Thursday, October 18. Navami, Maharnavami, Ayudh Puja, Siddhidatri Puja, Navami Homa.. Sarasvati Puja. 10. Day – 10. Friday, October 30. Dasami or Dashami. Vijaya Dasami, Dussehra Celebration. 1. Day -1, Thursday September 21. First day of the Bright Half of Ashvin. Navratri Begins as Pratipada or Ghatsthapana. This day is Observed as Chandra Darshan. Shailaputri Puja. 2. Day – 2, Friday September 22. Dwitiya, Brahmacharini Puja. 3. Day – 3, Saturday September 23. Tritiya, Sindoor Tritiya, Chandraghanta Puja. 4. Day – 4, Sunday September 24. Chaturthi, Kushmanda Puja, Varad Vinayak Chaturthi. 5. Day – 5, Monday September 25. Panchami, Skandamata Puja, Upang Lalita Vrat, Lalita Panchami. 6. Day – 6. Tuesday September 26. Shashti, Katyani Puja, Sarasvati Awahan, Sarasvati Puja. 7. Day – 7. Wednesday September 27. Saptami, Kalaratri Puja, Sarasvati Balidan, Maha Lakshmi Puja. 8. Day – 8. Thursday September 28. Mahashtami, Durga Ashtami, Annapurna Parikrama, Sarasvati Visarjan, Mahagauri Puja, Durga Puja. 9. Day – 9. Friday September 29. Navami, Maharnavami, Ayudh Puja, Siddhidatri Puja, Navami Homa.. Sarasvati Puja. 10. Day – 10. Saturday September 30. Dasami or Dashami. Vijaya Dasami, Dussehra Celebration. DEVI NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NINE DIFFERENT FORMS OF WORSHIP CALLED TARA–TARINI SHAKTI.
DEVI NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NAVA DURGA, NINE-FORMS OF ADORATION.
DEVI NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE – FIRST DAY OF NAVRATRI IS CALLED PRATIPADA. DEDICATED TO GODDESS SHAILAPUTRI, DAUGHTER OF RULER OF MOUNTAINS. SHE IS ALSO KNOWN AS PARVATI, HEMAVATI, SATI BHAVANI AND OTHERS.
DEVI NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. FIRST DAY OF NINE-NIGHT CELEBRATION BEGINS WITH THE WORSHIP OF GODDESS SHAILAPUTRI.
DEVI NAVRATRI – CELEBRATION OF DIVINE POWER. NAVRATRI, ON DAY-2, OR DWITIYA, DEDICATED TO GODDESS BRAHMACHARINI.
DEVI NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. THE FOURTH DAY IS CALLED CHATURTHI. GODDESS KUSHMANDA REPRESENTS CREATIVE POWER, AND SHE EXPRESSES A SENSE OF JOY FOR HER OWN CREATION.
DEVI NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. THE FOURTH DAY IS CALLED CHATURTHI. GODDESS KUSHMANDA REPRESENTS CREATIVE POWER, AND SHE EXPRESSES A SENSE OF JOY FOR HER OWN CREATION.
DEVI NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF FOURTH DAY OR CHATURTHI IS KNOWN AS KUSHMANDA.
DEVI NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF SIXTH DAY IS KNOWN AS KATYAYANI.
DEVI NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF SEVENTH DAY OR SAPTAMI IS KNOWN AS KALRATRI (BLACK OR DARK NIGHT), AND SUBHANKARI FOR SHE GIVES PROTECTION FROM TROUBLE.
DEVI NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF NINTH DAY OR MAHARNAVAMI IS KNOWN AS SIDDHIDATRI FOR SHE BESTOWS ASHTA SIDDHIS.
DEVI NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. A HYMN IN PRAISE AND WORSHIP OF GODDESS DURGA DEVI.
DEVI NAVRATRI – GOD BOTH MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS DURGA, LAKSHMI, AND SARASVATI. PERSONIFICATION OF GOD’S OMNIPOTENCE.
DEVI NAVRATRI – GOD BOTH MALE AND FEMALE. DEVI OR GODDESS HAS THREE SUPREME FORMS CALLED SARASVATI, LAKSHMI, AND PARVATI. THESE NAMES DESCRIBE DIFFERENT ATTRIBUTES OF GOD’S OMNIPOTENCE.
DEVI NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NINE WAYS TO WORSHIP GOD. EACH FORM IS VIEWED AS DIVINE MOTHER OR SUPREME MOTHER.
DEVI NAVRATRI, NINE-NIGHT CELEBRATION, DAY – 9, MAHA NAVAMI, AYUDHA PUJA, WORSHIP OF ALL WEAPONS, TOOLS, EQUIPMENT USED BY MAN TO ACCOMPLISH ACTION.
DEVI NAVRATRI – NINE-NIGHT WORSHIP OF DIVINE POWER, LOVE, GRACE, AND COMPASSION TO ACCOMPLISH VICTORY OF GOOD OVER EVIL FORCES. 10th DAY, DASAMI IS KNOWN AS VIJAYA DASAMI OR DUSSEHRA.
2018 NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS – A VERY SPECIAL TRIBUTE TO DR DONNA STRICKLAND
From left: Nobel Laureates Donna Strickland, Gérard Mourou, Arthur Ashkin
The Book of Genesis, The First Book of Apostle Moses, Chapter 1, verse 3 refers to the creation of Light.
Today, the world celebrates the invention of powerful optical tools that can illuminate God’s creation giving us new insights hidden from our view as God’s Light cannot reveal those hidden mysteries of Life.
Donna Strickland, a researcher who was recognized for her work turning lasers into tools, became the first woman in 55 years to win the Nobel Prize for physics. (Joyce Koh /The Washington Post)
The 2018 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded Tuesday to Arthur Ashkin, Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland for their pioneering work to turn lasers into powerful tools.
Ashkin, a researcher at Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, invented “optical tweezers” — focused beams of light that can be used to grab particles, atoms and even living cells and are now widely used to study the machinery of life.
Mourou, of École Polytechnique in France and the University of Michigan, and Strickland, of the University of Waterloo in Canada, “paved the way” for the most powerful lasers ever created by humans via a technique that stretches and then amplifies the light beam.
“Billions of people make daily use of optical disk drive, laser printers and optical scanners . . . millions undergo laser surgery,” Nobel committee member Olga Botner said. “The laser is truly one of the many examples of how a so-called blue sky discovery in a fundamental science eventually may transform our daily lives.”
Strickland is the first woman to be awarded the physics prize since 1963 when Maria Goeppert-Mayer was recognized for her work on the structure of atomic nuclei. Marie Curie won the physics prize in 1903 and the chemistry Nobel Prize in 1911.
A reporter asked Strickland Tuesday what it felt like to be the third woman in history to win the prize.
“Really? Is that all? I thought there might have been more,” she responded, sounding surprised. “Obviously, we need to celebrate women physicists, because we’re out there. I don’t know what to say. I’m honored to be one of those women.”
Ashkin, 96, is the oldest person to be awarded the Nobel Prize. He would not be available for interviews, the committee said Tuesday morning; he was too busy working on his next paper.
An artist’s illustration of wavelengths of light in a laser beam. (Johan Jarnestad)
In a laser beam, light waves are tightly focused, rather than mixing and scattering as they do in the ordinary white light. Since the first laser was invented in 1960, scientists speculated that the energy of these focused beams could be put to work to move and manipulate objects — a real-life version of Star Trek’s “tractor beams.”
“But this was science fiction for a very long time,” committee member Mats Larsson said.
Ashkin spent two decades studying the properties of lasers, first recognizing that objects could be drawn toward the center of a beam, where the radiation was most intense. (A committee member demonstrated this phenomenon during the news conference by using a hair dryer to suspend a ping-pong ball in the air.) By further focusing the beam with a lens, he developed a “light trap” that could suspend a small spherical object at its center.
Ashkin used his new tool to hold a particle in place, then an atom, and, eventually, in 1987, a living bacterium. Ashkin even demonstrated that the tool could be used to reach into a cell without damaging the living system.
Atomic physicist Bill Phillips, who shared the Nobel Prize in 1997 for his work on cooling and trapping atoms with lasers, said Ashkin’s discoveries were vital to his own research. “I feel like I owe a great debt to Art,” he said.
Also in the 1980s, Mourou and Strickland were working together at the University of Rochester to overcome a problem that had dogged laser research for decades: High-intensity laser beams tended to destroy the material used to amplify them. It was as though scientists were trying to boil water in a pot that could not handle such high temperatures.
The Rochester researchers developed an elegant workaround, which they called “chirped pulse amplification.” First, they stretched out the beam with a mile-long fiber optic cable, reducing its peak intensity. Then they amplified the signal to the desired level, before compressing it into an ultrashort, ultrapowerful pulse lasting a tiny fraction of a second.
“Different people were trying to get short pulses amplified in different ways,” Strickland said. “It was thinking outside the box to stretch first and then amplify.”
Strickland was a graduate student at the time of the CPA research; the 1985 article that announced the achievement was her first scientific publication.
Students have historically not been recognized by the Nobel Committee, something critics say overlooks the work done by young scientists who are more frequently women and underrepresented minorities.
Yet graduate students are the backbone of most scientific research; often they run the experiments and do the detailed data analyses that lead to major discoveries. The prizewinning discovery of pulsars — swiftly spinning cores of collapsed stars — would not have been possible without Jocelyn Bell Burnell, who built the telescope and spotted the first signal when she was earning her PhD. But Burnell was not among the list of laureates for that prize.
The journal Nature reported this weekend that the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences would explicitly call on future nominators to consider gender, geography and topic for the 2019 prizes.
Göran K. Hansson, secretary-general of the academy, said Tuesday the academy is taking these measures “because we don’t want to miss anyone.” But they did not affect this year’s prize: “It’s important to remember that the Nobel Prize is awarded for discoveries and inventions, and those who receive it have made major contributions to humankind, and that’s why they get the prize.”
CPA has been used to take images of split-second processes, such as the interactions between molecules and atoms, and it’s fundamental for laser eye surgery.
The technique is just as important to basic research.
“Fast pulse, high-energy lasers is . . . one of the key things that characterize modern atomic physics,” Phillips said. “There’s so much you can do with [them] to study how atoms behave.”
In a phone interview with the Swedish Academy, Strickland said her favorite application of high-power lasers is something she still demonstrates to undergraduate students in physics lab: White light generation.
With this technique, a beam containing a narrow range of wavelengths is shot into a medium such as water, causing the waves to spread out into a rainbow. This is more advanced than Newton’s famous experiment with a prism; whereas he simply spread out light into its component colors, white light generation broadens the spectrum contained within a beam, creating the colored light.
“It’s a remarkable thing to see,” Strickland said, and it took decades for physicists to understand how it worked.
“But that’s what scientists like to do,” she said, “is puzzle over something.”
India currently has two lasers that produce 100 terawatts (10 to the power 12) beams.
The terawatt (TW) is equal to one trillion (1012) watts. The total power used by humans worldwide is commonly measured in terawatts (see primary energy). The most powerful lasers from the mid-1960s to the mid-1990s produced power in terawatts, but only for nanosecond time frames.
The Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology in Indore is in the process of installing two petawatt systems, while another is likely to be installed in Hyderabad.
Such high intensities are extremely useful in many scientific contexts. These high-power beams of light, when they interact with matter, produce such extreme conditions that are found only in the deep cores of stars, or other celestial bodies. Scientists use this to study and understand these conditions, which would otherwise not be accessible to them, giving rise to the expression ‘astrophysics in the laboratory’.
Such ultrashort and high-power light beams also help the scientists in uncovering processes that take place in the micro-world. These processes happen so quickly that they cannot be captured by anything else. High-power femtosecond (10 raised to the power minus 15) pulses have enabled scientists to ‘see’ processes such as atomic interactions that earlier appeared to be instantaneous and remained invisible.
TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 11, 2018 – REMEMBERING THE CONSONANCE AND THE DISSONANCE IN HUMAN NATURE
On Tuesday, September 11, 2018, the 17th Anniversary of 911 attacks on the United States, I reflect upon the consonance and dissonance in human nature. The serenity and nobility of the site in Pennsylvania depict the dimension of consonance and the crash of Flight 93 depicts the dimension of dissonance when the world and man are viewed as the works of God.
I define the United States using its national motto which proclaims, “In God We Trust.” For we trust in God, it is rational to claim that man is constituted as a Spiritual Being in God’s own image. I have a great problem in accounting for man’s evil thoughts and actions that cause pain and suffering. The wickedness of man got exposed on Tuesday, September 11, 2001. For God’s creation is perfect, there can never be two opposing or self-contradicting dimensions of human nature. Man’s spiritual nature reveals the consonance, the resonance of God’s nature in His work. How does the dissonance intrude into the world? How can the man be estranged, separated, or alienated from his own true or original nature?
In my analysis, the prophecy of Isaiah has come true. Man is cursed to suffer. There can be no healing without conversion by the Spirit.
The Tower of Voices is conceived as a monumental, ninety-three feet tall musical instrument holding forty wind chimes, representing the forty passengers and crew members. The intent is to create a set of forty tones (voices) that can connote through consonance the serenity and nobility of the site while also through dissonance recalling the event that consecrated the site.
Artwork courtesy of bioLinia and Paul Murdoch Architects.
The wind chimes inside the Tower of Voices. The chimes will be constructed of polished aluminium tubes ranging 8-16 inches in diameter and approximately five to ten feet in length. The size of each chime is dependent on the musical note and associated frequency that it is intended to produce.
Artwork courtesy of bioLinia and Paul Murdoch Architects.
The Tower of Voices serves as both a visual and audible reminder of the heroism of the forty passengers and crew of United Flight 93. On September 09, 2018 Flight 93 National Memorial will host a dedication event to complete the final phase of construction and complete the permanent memorial.
The tower is conceived as a monumental, ninety-three feet tall musical instrument holding forty wind chimes, representing the forty passengers and crew members. It is intended to be a landmark feature near the memorial entrance, visible from US Route 30/Lincoln Highway. The Tower of Voices will provide a living memorial in sound to remember the forty through their ongoing voices.
The tower project will be constructed from 2017 to 2018 with a dedication of the project on September 9, 2018. Funding for the design and construction of the project is provided through private donations to the National Park Foundation and the Friends of Flight 93 National Memorial.
Uniqueness of Design
There are no other chime structures like this in the world. The shape and orientation of the tower are designed to optimize airflow through the tower walls to reach the interior chime chamber. The chime system is designed using music theory to identify a mathematically developed range of frequencies needed to produce a distinct musical note associated with each chime. The applied music theory allows the sound produced by individual chimes to be musically compatible with the sound produced by the other chimes in the tower. The intent is to create a set of forty tones (voices) that can connote through consonance the serenity and nobility of the site while also through dissonance recalling the event that consecrated the site.
The tower is approximately ninety-three feet tall from the base to the top with some height variations. The Tower cross-section is a “C” shape with a fifteen foot outside diameter and eleven foot inside diameter. The “C” shape allows sound to reflect outwardly from the open side in a fan-shaped pattern. The chimes will be suspended a minimum of twenty feet above the main plaza and will be suspended from the interior walls of the tower up to the top.
The tower walls will be constructed of precast concrete segments linked by connectors. The chimes will be constructed of polished aluminium tubes ranging eight to sixteen inches in diameter and approximately five to ten feet in length. The size of each chime is dependent on the musical note and associated frequency that it is intended to produce. Chimes of this size and magnitude do not currently exist in the world. The chimes are wind activated and will have internal strikers attached to sails projecting from the bottom of each chime.
The tower is located on an oval concrete plaza that is built on top of an earth mound to create an area more prominent on the landscape. The plaza includes two curved concrete benches facing the opening of the tower.
The tower is surrounded by concentric rings of white pines and deciduous plantings. The concentric plantings may be interpreted as resonating “sound waves” from the Tower, alluding to the auditory qualities of the chimes housed within. A direct paved path leads to the tower from the parking lot. A longer, meandering crushed stone path winds through the trees and allows visitors an alternative approach to the tower. All other landscaped areas of the project will be planted with a native wildflower seed mix similar to other landscaped areas of the park.
SEPTEMBER 08, 2018 – INTERNATIONAL LITERACY DAY TRIBUTE TO THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA
On Saturday, September 08, 2018, International Literacy Day, I pay my tribute to the Seventeen Great Masters of Nalanda Buddhist Monastery. I invite my readers to know about these great teachers and their contributions to the Literacy Traditions of Humanity.
International Literacy Day is a holiday which is celebrated annually on September 8th. The purpose of this day is to raise the world’s awareness of literacy issues that are faced by people all over the world and to endorse campaigns that help increase literacy for all people. It was originally established by UNESCO – the United Nations Educational, Scientific & Cultural Organization – in 1965.
To combat worldwide issues of illiteracy, UNESCO proclaimed September 8th as International Literacy Day in 1965. The purpose of this observational day was not only to combat illiteracy but also to promote literacy as a tool that could empower individuals as well as whole communities. It is from these humble beginnings that International Literacy Day has bloomed into a tool that could help millions of people around the globe.
As of 2016, about 775 million adults lack even the most basic, minimum literacy skills all over the world. This means that about 1 in 5 adults in the world – or about 20 % of all people – are not literate. Of that 20%, about 66% of those are women. About 75 million of the world’s children are not in school or have dropped out before they have finished. However, thanks to the efforts of UNESCO & World Literacy Day, more and more people are becoming literate and about 4 billion people are currently literate, as of now.
International Literacy Day Customs & Traditions
Every year, UNESCO issues a theme for the celebration of International Literacy Day. For instance, in 2011, the theme was “Literacy & Peace,” in 2013, the theme was “Literacy for the 21st Century” and in 2015, the theme was “Literacy and Sustainable Societies.”
UNESCO and its partners use these themes to highlight the programs which it and its partners use to tackle various parts of the literacy issues in the world. As a result of some of these programs, attention is often raised in the media about literacy issues. Especially on the Internet where the hashtag #literacyday has been trending for the last few years.
International Mother Language Day
International Mother Language Day is an annual worldwide observance that falls on February 21st. This day not only celebrates language diversity all over the world but also remembers the killing of four students on February 21, 1952. These students were killed because they campaigned to officially use their mother language in Bangladesh.
History of International Mother Language Day
International Mother Language Day was originally a social movement that started to defend a person’s right to speak and write in one’s mother language. February 21st was picked as the date because that is when students who were attending the University of Dhaka, Jagannath University and Dhaka Medical College were murdered by police while they were demonstrating for the right to speak in their mother tongue – Bengali. This started a social movement that began to snowball over the next few decades.
Eventually, this social movement was picked up by a Bengali named Rafiqul Islam that was living in Vancouver, British Columbia in Canada. He decided to send a letter to the United Nation to ask for a day to be established that would preserve and protect the languages of the world. In his letter, he stated that February 21st should be the day on which it is celebrated in honor of the killings in Dhaka. This would eventually lead to the proposal of resolution A/RES/61/266.
Finally, in 1999, the United Nations General Assembly passed resolution A/RES/61/266. This resolution set February 21st as International Mother Language Day and called on all member states to promote this observational holiday as a way to promote the preservation and protection of all languages used by people all over the world.
International Mother Language Day Customs & Traditions
Officially, UNESCO and many of its partners promote a number of linguistic and cultural diversity events on International Mother Language Day. Many universities all over the world will host a mother language day and some governments will issue a proclamation on this day. In Bangladesh, people lay flowers at the martyr’s monument known as Shaheed Minar. Also, there are various awards and prizes for the literacy competitions that promote multiculturalism and multilingualism are held on this day.
DALAI LAMA LAUDS NALANDA PRIESTS FOR LOGICAL BUDDHIST TEACHINGS
Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama.(Photo: IANS)
Tibetan spiritual leader Dalai Lama on Monday praised the seventeen pandits (priests) of Nalanda for their logical way of teaching Buddhism and said he himself is one of their biggest admirers.
“The only complete and detailed explanation of the ancient Nalanda teaching has persevered in the Tibetan language which is the reason that the Chinese people who are interested in learning Buddhism, are learning the Tibetan language,” he said.
He said the ancestors of Tibetan people had well preserved this knowledge for thousands of years, which enabled Tibetans to expertise in promoting the knowledge in the Tibetan language.
“It is the duty of Tibetan people to continue the practical teachings of those ancestors while at the same time take pride in possessing such vast and profound knowledge passed by them,” he said.
He said he respects all kinds of religious beliefs which only teach love and compassion as the ultimate source of human happiness.
He cited an example of how humans are born out of love and how they survive on love. He emphasised that the masters of Nalanda encourage its followers to approach their teaching with logic and reason rather than following it blindly. Thus, people should experiment and research on the teachings of those masters in light of reason, he added.
He urged the Tibetan people to preserve the rich Tibetan language as it has the potential to serve all the sentient beings on earth. He assured the people that he would live for hundred years to serve humanity and especially to lead the cause of Tibet under his guidance.
TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA
I am pleased to share an article titled ‘The Seventeen Pandits of Nalanda Monastery’ by Professor James Blumenthal Ph.D. who gives a brief account of Nalanda University and its great influence upon Tibetan Buddhism. I pay my respectful tribute to Professor Blumenthal who passed away on October 09, 2015. May LORD GOD bless his soul.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA – CENTER OF BUDDHIST LEARNING IN ANCIENT INDIA:
TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. ACHARYA NAGARJUNA.
TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. ACHARYA NAGARJUNA.
TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. ARYADEVA.
TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. ASANGA.
TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. VASUBANDHU.
TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. DIGNAGA.
TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA – DHARMAKIRTI.
TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. GUNA PRABHA AND HIS DISCIPLE SHAKYA PRABHA.
TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. BUDDHAPALITA.
TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT TEACHERS OF NALANDA. BHAVAVIVEKA.
TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. ACHARYA BHAVAVIVEKA.
TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. CHANDRAKIRTI.
TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. SHANTARAKSHITA.
TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. SHANTARAKSHITA.
TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. KAMALASHILA.
TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. KAMALASHILA. BHAVANAKRAMA – THREE STAGES OF MEDITATION.
TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. HARIBHADRA.
TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. VIMUKTISENA.
TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. SHANTIDEVA.
TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. ATISHA.
TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT TEACHERS OF NALANDA. ATISHA.
THE SEVENTEEN PANDITS OF NALANDA MONASTERY
BY JAMES BLUMENTHAL, INFO-BUDDHISM.COM
Posted on October 8th, 2015
Oregon, USA — Nalanda Monastic University was the greatest center of Buddhist learning in India’s glorious past. With upwards of 30,000 monks and nuns including 2,000 teachers living, studying and practicing there during its heyday, Nalanda was unmatched.
Established during the Gupta Dynasty in the late 5th to early 6th century C.E. under the patronage of the Gupta king Shakraditra, the institution survived for six hundred years, through the Pala Dynasty, until ultimately being destroyed in 1203 by Turkish Muslim invaders. In 1204 the last throne-holder (abbot) of Nalanda, Shakyashribhadra, fled to Tibet. In the intervening centuries, however, many of India’s greatest Buddhist masters trained and taught at Nalanda.
Nalanda’s renown as a center for higher learning spread far. It attracted students from as far away as Greece, Persia, China and Tibet. Although Buddhism was naturally the central focus of study, other subjects including astronomy, medicine (Ayurveda), grammar, metaphysics, logic, philosophy of language, classical Hindu philosophy, non-Indian philosophy and so forth were all regularly studied. Chinese pilgrims who visited Nalanda in the 7th century C.E. give detailed accounts of the physical premises and activities in their travelogues. For example, they describe three nine-story buildings comprising the library that housed millions of titles in hundreds of thousands of volumes on a vast variety of topics!
Much like the large Gelug monasteries of Sera, Drepung and Ganden, living quarters were divided according to regions of the world from which the monks and nuns came. There are clear records of a well-populated Tibet Vihara at Nalanda during the later period. In fact, history reveals that at one point there was a Tibetan gatekeeper at Nalanda. The gatekeepers were traditionally the top scholars/debaters at the institution. Their job was to stand “guard” at the gate and defeat in debate any non-Buddhist who proposed to challenge the scholarship and ideas of the institution. If they could not defeat the gatekeeper in debate, they would not be allowed further into the monastery.
The Seventeen Pandits of Nalanda Monastery refers to a grouping of seventeen of the most important and influential Mahayana Buddhist masters from India’s past. His Holiness the Dalai Lama frequently refers to himself as a follower of the lineage of the seventeen Nalanda masters today. He even wrote an exquisite poem in praise of the seventeen.
So who were they? Historically speaking, this particular grouping of Indian masters seems to have become prominent quite recently and to be based on attributions of lam-rim (stages of the path) lineages in Tibet. A likely predecessor to this grouping is an Indian reference to the Six Ornaments of the Southern Continent (i.e., India) and the Two Excellent Ones. These eight form the core of the seventeen.
The Six Ornaments first include Nagarjuna (c. 2nd century C.E.), the revealer of the Perfection of Wisdom Sutras and the systematizer and founder of the Middle Way (Madhyamaka) school of Buddhist philosophy. The most famous treatise of his six texts of reasoning is The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way, probably the single most analyzed, commented upon and discussed philosophical treatise in Buddhism’s history.
The second of the six ornaments is Aryadeva (c. 3rd century C.E.) who is sometimes referred to as Nagarjuna’s heart disciple and sometimes simply as his first authoritative commentator. Like Nagarjuna, Aryadeva is universally revered as an authoritative voice for all subsequent Middle Way commentators and is most well-known for his treatise The Four Hundred Stanzas.
Aryadeva was born as the son of a Sinhalese king and is considered the co – founder of Mahayana philosophy
In addition to the two Middle Way school masters, included among the six ornaments are the two earliest masters from the Mind-Only school (Yogachara/Chittamatra): Asanga (300–390 C.E.), the founder, and his disciple and half-brother, Vasubandhu (c. 4th century C.E.) one of the system’s earliest and most authoritative commentators. In addition to his own treatises, Asanga is also famous, according to tradition, for retrieving the five Maitreya Buddha texts¹ directly from Maitreya in his pure land, Tushita. With regards to Vasubandhu, before becoming a leading exponent of the Mind-Only school, he wrote a famous treatise from the perspective of the Great Exposition school (Vaibhashika) entitled The Treasure of Knowledge (Abhidharmakosha) which is utilized extensively in Tibetan scholastic studies. Traditionally, seven years is dedicated to the study of this text in the Gelug geshe curriculum.
Two additional Mind-Only school proponents round out the six ornaments: Dignaga (6th century C.E.) and Dharmakirti (600–660 C.E.). The two are most famous as the groundbreakers in Buddhist logic and epistemology. Specifically, they wrote philosophical treatises on the contents and means of accruing valid knowledge. They argued that from the Buddhist perspective there were two sources of valid knowledge: logical inference and direct perception. Much of their writings were detailed elaborations on these topics.
The Two Excellent Ones refers to the two great Vinaya masters: Gunaprabha (c. 9th century C.E.) andShakyaprabha. Gunaprabha was a disciple of Vasubandhu’s and is most famous for his treatise, the Vinaya Sutra. Shakyaprabha was a disciple of Shantarakshita (also among the seventeen) and the other major teacher of vinaya among the seventeen. He is particularly associated Mulasarvastivada-vinaya line which has been followed in Tibet since the time of the early Dharma King, Ralpachen (born c. 806 C.E.). His teacher Shantarakshita began this ordination lineage in Tibet when he ordained the first seven Tibetan monks and founded Samye Monastery.
Beyond the Six Ornaments and Two Excellent Ones, are nine additional Indian Buddhist masters, each of whom profoundly impacted the shapes of Indian and/or Tibetan Buddhism for centuries.
Buddhapalita (470–550 C.E.) was one of the great commentators on Nagarjuna’s Madhyamaka thought. He is the earliest Indian Madhyamaka specifically identified as a proponent of the sub-school of Madhyamaka known in Tibet as the Middle Way Consequence school (Prasangika-Madhyamaka). He received this designation in Tibet due to his use of a form of reasoning that drew out the absurd logical consequences of the philosophical rivals of Madhyamakas when he commented on Nagarjuna’s root text on wisdom.
Buddhapalita was subsequently criticized by another Madhyamaka master, Bhavaviveka (500–578 C.E.). He argued that a proper Madhyamaka commentator ought to do more than show the absurdities of other’s views; they also have a responsibility to establish the view of emptiness and to do so with autonomous inferences (svatantranumana). He subsequently became known in Tibet as the “founder” and primary proponent of a sub-school of Madhyamaka known as the Middle Way Autonomy school (Svatantrika-Madhyamaka).
Chandrakirti (600–650 C.E.) is revered by many in Tibet as the founder of the Middle Way Consequence school, often regarded as the highest Buddhist philosophical explanation of reality. He famously came to the defense of Buddhapalita’s use of consequentialist reasoning contra Bhavaviveka’s criticism. In a line of thinking further developed by Je Tsongkhapa (1357–1419 CE) they argued that a Madhyamaka philosopher ought not to utilize autonomous inferences because the very use of that sort of reasoning entailed the acceptance of an inherent nature in the subject of the argument. Since the existence of an inherent nature in anything was precisely what Nagarjuna was refuting, the use of autonomous inference seemed like a fatal flaw for a Madhyamaka. Though historical evidence suggests that Chandrakirti’s views likely did not have extensive support in India until the late period there, by the 13th century in Tibet, his views on a proper understanding of Madhyamaka began to dominate the philosophical landscape and continue to today.
Shantarakshita (725–788 C.E.) was a towering figure in late Indian Buddhist philosophy and immensely influential in Tibet. Philosophically, he is famous for integrating the three major lines of Mahayana philosophy into an integrated coherent system. These were the Madhyamaka, the Yogachara and the logico-epistemological thought of Dharmakirti. Beyond India, he spent the last seventeen years of his life in Tibet, ordaining its first monks and serving as abbot of it first monastery. Moreover, probably nobody has exerted a greater influence on Tibetan Buddhism in terms of the way in which Tibetans approach philosophy. Shantarakshita virtually taught Tibetans how to do philosophy during the early dissemination of the Dharma there.
Two of Shantarakshita’s disciples (in addition to Shakyabhadra mentioned above) are also included in the list of seventeen. Kamalashila (c. 8th century C.E.) likewise was an immensely important figure in India and Tibet. Like his teacher, Kamalashila wrote extensively on Madhyamaka and pramana (logic and epistemology) as well as on meditation theory and practice.
His three Stages of Meditation (Bhavanakrama) texts are among the most cited in traditional Tibet expositions on the topics. Moreover, also like his teacher, he spent extensive time in Tibet during the early dissemination. He famously and successfully defended the Indian gradual approach to enlightenment at the Great Debate at Samye (also called the Council of Lhasa) against the instantaneous approach advocated by Hvashang Mohoyen, the Chinese master. Tibetan histories often recount that since that time Tibetan have followed the Indian method.
Haribhadra (700–770 C.E.), the last of Shantarakshita’s disciples included in the group of seventeen, wrote the most famous and commonly utilized of the 21 Indian commentaries on The Ornament of Clear Realizations by Maitreya and the Mahayana path system in general. The other major commentator on The Ornament of Clear Realizations to be included among the seventeen is Vimuktisena (c. 6th century C.E.) whose text Illuminating the Twenty Thousand: A Commentary on the Ornament is likewise extensively cited by subsequent Tibetan authors.
Shantideva (c. 8th century C.E.) composed what is perhaps the most important and influential classic on how to practice in the Mahayana tradition: A Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life (Bodhisattvacharyavatara) while a monk at Nalanda. His text on the development of bodhichitta and the practice of the six perfections is revered and studied extensively by all Tibetan traditions. His Holiness the Dalai Lama often refers to his favorite passage in Buddhist literature as coming from the dedication section of this text: “As long as space endures, as long as sentient being remain, may I too remain, to dispel the miseries of the world.”
The final master included among the seventeen was the Bengali scholar-adept Atisha (980–1054 C.E.), who was a critical figure in the later dissemination of Buddhism in Tibet. Like many of the others on this list, Atisha’s impact on the shape of Tibetan Buddhism was immense. His classic, The Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment (Bodhipathpradipa) is widely regarded as the root text on the graduated stages of the path presentation found in Tibetan classics like Je Tsongkhapa’s The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment (also commonly referred to by the abbreviated Tibetan name, Lamrim Chenmo), Gampopa’s Jeweled Ornament of Liberation and Patrul Rinpoche’s The Words of My Perfect Teacher among others. In addition to the stages of the path teachings, Atisha also introduced the lojong, or mind training, tradition of Mahayana practice in Tibet. Lojong teachings are quintessential Mahayana teachings in that their aim is to eliminate both the self-cherishing attitude and self-grasping by teaching means to cultivate the altruistic compassion of bodhichitta and the direct realization of emptiness. Like the stages of the path teachings, the mind training tradition is one that is embraced by all Tibetan lineages.
Together the seventeen great masters of Nalanda monastery represent the real high points of Indian Mahayana. The inspiration and teachings of these great masters continue to bless practitioners of the Mahayana to the present day.
¹ The five Maitreya texts are: The Ornament of Clear Realization (Abhisamayalamkara), The Ornament of Mahayana Sutras (Mahayanasutralamkara), Distinguishing the Middle from the Extremes (Madhyantavibhaga), Distinguishing Phenomena and the Nature of Phenomena (Dharma-dharmata-vibhaga), and The Sublime Continuum (Uttaratantra).
JAMES BLUMENTHAL, Ph.D. is an associate professor of Buddhist philosophy at Oregon State University and professor of Buddhist Studies at Maitripa College. He is the author of The Ornament of The Middle Way: A Study of the Madhyamika Thought of Shantarakshita along with more than 40 articles in scholarly journals and popular periodicals on various aspects of Buddhist thought and practice. He recently finished work with Geshe Lhundup Sopa on Steps on the Path: Vol. IV, a commentary on the ‘ Shamatha’ chapter of Lamrim Chanmo of Tsongkhapa which is due for publication in the fall.