SEPTEMBER 12, 1972 – NIXON-KISSINGER VIETNAM TREASON – UNFINISHED KOREA-VIETNAM WAR

SEPTEMBER 12, 1972 – NIXON-KISSINGER VIETNAM TREASON – UNFINISHED KOREA-VIETNAM WAR

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SEPTEMBER 12, 1972 – NIXON-KISSINGER VIETNAM TREASON – UNFINISHED KOREA-VIETNAM WAR

On September 12, 2017 the United States is facing consequences of Unfinished Korea-Vietnam War which began in 1950 to contain the spread of Communism in Asia.

On September 12, 1972 US President Richard M Nixon was briefed about the presence of large numbers of North Vietnamese troops inside South Vietnam. This crucial factor was not taken into consideration when Dr. Henry Kissinger during Paris Peace Accords signed in January 1973. Further, US President Nixon gave false promise to South Vietnam when he assured them of continued US support in the War on Communism.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada
DOOM DOOMA DOOMSAYER

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U.S. INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES REPORT 100,000 TROOPS IN THE SOUTH – SEPTEMBER 12, 1972

Clipped from: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/u-s-intelligence-agencies-report-100000-troops-in-the-south?

U.S. intelligence agencies (the Central Intelligence Agency and Defense Intelligence Agency) report to the National Security Council that the North Vietnamese have 100,000 regular troops in South Vietnam and can sustain fighting “at the present rate” for two years.
The report further stated that while U.S. bombing had caused heavy casualties and prevented North Vietnam from doubling operations, the overall effects were disappointing because troops and supplies had kept moving south. It was estimated that 20,000 fresh troops had infiltrated into the South in the previous six weeks and that communist troops in the Mekong Delta had increased as much as tenfold–up to 30,000–in the last year. This report was significant in that it showed that the North Vietnamese, who had suffered greatly since launching the Easter invasion on March 31, were steadily replacing their losses and maintaining troop levels in the south. These forces and their presence in South Vietnam were not addressed in the Paris Peace Accords that were signed in January 1973, and the North Vietnamese troops remained. Therefore, shortly after the ceasefire was initiated, new fighting erupted between the South Vietnamese forces and the North Vietnamese troops who remained in the South.
The South Vietnamese held out for two years, but when the United States failed to honor the promises of continued support made by President Nixon (who resigned on August 8, 1974, in the wake of the Watergate scandal), the North Vietnamese launched a major offensive and the South Vietnamese were defeated in less than 55 days. Saigon fell on April 30, 1975.

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KNOW YOUR ENEMY – UN SANCTIONS ON NORTH KOREA WILL NOT WORK – UNFINISHED KOREA-VIETNAM WAR

KNOW YOUR ENEMY – UN SANCTIONS ON NORTH KOREA WILL NOT WORK – UNFINISHED KOREA-VIETNAM WAR

UN Expands North Korea Sanctions - The Daily Beast

KNOW YOUR ENEMY – UN SANCTIONS ON NORTH KOREA WILL NOT WORK – UNFINISHED KOREA-VIETNAM WAR

North Korea slapped with UN sanctions after nuclear test

In my analysis, UN sanctions on North Korea will not work. Apart from sanctions, United States used millions of bombs to subdue North Vietnam and yet miserably failed to win the War. The Enemy is not Korea or Vietnam. The spread of Communism to mainland China in 1949 is the real Enemy posing threat to Freedom, Democracy, Peace, and Justice in Asia.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada
DOOM DOOMA DOOMSAYER

... sanctions on North Korea for conducting its sixth and largest nuclear

WILL NEW SANCTIONS MAKE KIM JONG UN SWEAT?

Clipped from: http://www.msn.com/en-us/news/world/north-korea-will-new-sanctions-make-kim-jong-un-sweat/ar-AArP028

© STR/AFP/Getty Images North Korean leader Kim Jong-Un The latest U.N. sanctions are designed to squeeze North Korea harder than ever, but will it be hard enough?
The new measures target major goods that North Korea buys and sells, but they don’t go as far as the U.S. wanted. A ban on oil exports to North Korea was dropped from Monday’s U.N. resolution. Now it calls only for a reduction.
That was the result of opposition from China and Russia, which are wary of putting too much economic pressure on North Korea.
“The Chinese and Russians are only willing to accept sanctions with loopholes in them that allow China and Russia to dictate how strong they really are,” said Anthony Ruggiero, a senior fellow at the Foundation for Defense of Democracies in Washington.
Analysts said doubts remain over how tightly Beijing, Moscow and others will enforce the latest measures.
‘How would we know?’
China, which is estimated to account for roughly 90% of North Korea’s foreign trade, has been repeatedly criticized by experts for not doing enough to implement previous U.N. sanctions.
The new limits on oil highlight the difficulties involved. The U.N. resolution caps the amount of crude oil sold to North Korea each year at 4 million barrels.
But China, which sends crude oil to its smaller neighbor through a pipeline, stopped disclosing the amount it ships more than three years ago.
“How would we know if China is limiting crude oil exports if it doesn’t report the data to begin with?” asked Kent Boydston, a research analyst at the Peterson Institute for International Economics.
A recent report by a U.N. panel of experts also found flaws in the enforcement of existing sanctions. It estimated that North Korea managed to export at least $270 million of banned commodities between February and August.
More U.S. pressure?
In order to pressure Beijing and Moscow to do more, the U.S. has to go after more companies and individuals that are suspected of doing business with the North Korean regime, according to Ruggiero.
The Trump administration has already made some moves this year, hitting a Chinese bank and other Chinese and Russian entities with sanctions. But Ruggiero, a former official at the State and Treasury departments, has called for the U.S. to go further by slapping a big fine on a notable Chinese bank.
“The one factor working in favor of these sanctions being implemented is that the Chinese and Russians have to be fearful that the U.S. will impose its own sanctions on Chinese and Russian companies,” he said.
The U.S. is in a race against time, with North Korea having carried out a string of missile launches in recent weeks and its biggest ever nuclear test.
“It does sound like U.S. patience is running out,” Ruggiero said. “I’m not sure how much time they’re going to give China to implement a resolution like this.”
‘They will eat grass’
Even if China and Russia do fully enforce the latest sanctions, there’s still considerable doubt about whether the stranglehold will force Kim to rethink the development of North Korea’s nuclear weapons.
Experts have repeatedly warned that Kim’s regime will protect the weapons program above all else. Russian President Vladimir Putin appears to agree with that view.
“They will eat grass but they will not turn away from the path that will provide for their security,” he said of North Koreans last week.
The reduction in oil sales to North Korea isn’t expected to change Kim’s calculus.
The measure is unlikely to have a significant impact on the North Korean military or nuclear weapons program, according to a report Tuesday by the Nautilus Institute, a think tank that specializes in energy issues.

“Primarily these sanctions will affect the civilian population whose oil product uses are of lower priority to the [North Korean] state,” the report said.

North Korea refined oil imports'

SEPTEMBER 10, 2017 – THE COLD WAR IN ASIA – TELL THE COMMUNISTS, “WE STILL MEAN BUSINESS”

SEPTEMBER 10, 2017 – THE COLD WAR IN ASIA – TELL THE COMMUNISTS, “WE STILL MEAN BUSINESS”

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SEPTEMBER 10, 2017 – THE COLD WAR IN ASIA – TELL THE COMMUNISTS, “WE STILL MEAN BUSINESS”

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On September 10, 2017, United States must tell the Communists, “We mean Business.” The time has come to squarely address the problem of Communism that spread to mainland China in 1949.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada
DOOM DOOMA DOOMSAYER

Ch22 sec1&2 new2012

PRESIDENT JOHNSON SENDS SIGNAL TO BOTH NORTH AND SOUTH VIETNAMESE – SEPTEMBER 10, 1964

Clipped from: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/president-johnson-sends-signal-to-both-north-and-south-vietnamese?

Following the Tonkin Gulf incidents, in which North Vietnamese torpedo boats attacked U.S. destroyers, and the subsequent passage of the Tonkin Gulf Resolution empowering him to react to armed attacks, President Lyndon Johnson authorizes a series of measures “to assist morale in South Vietnam and show the Communists [in North Vietnam] we still mean business.” These measures included covert action such as the resumption of the DeSoto intelligence patrols and South Vietnamese coastal raids to harass the North Vietnamese. Premier Souvanna Phouma of Laos was also asked to allow the South Vietnamese to make air and ground raids into southeastern Laos, along with air strikes by Laotian planes and U.S. armed aerial reconnaissance to cut off the North Vietnamese infiltration along the route that became known as the Ho Chi Minh Trail. Eventually, U.S. warplanes would drop over 2 million tons of bombs on Laos as part of Operations Steel Tiger and Tiger Hound between 1965 and 1973.

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SEPTEMBER 09, 2017 – CHAIRMAN MAO’S LEGACY LIVES – CHINA’S EXPANSIONISM

SEPTEMBER 09, 2017 – CHAIRMAN MAO’S LEGACY LIVES – CHINA’S EXPANSIONISM

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On September 09, 2017 Chairman Mao Zedong’s Legacy lives. Unfinished Korea-Vietnam War is mere symptom of ‘The Cold War in Asia’ which started with Communist takeover of mainland China. In Korean Peninsula, the US faces security challenge posed by the spread of Communism in Asia. It is not surprising to note that Vietnam recognizes the same threat and is willing to cooperate with the United States to contain Expansionist Doctrine formulated by Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada
DOOM DOOMA DOOMSAYER

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CHAIRMAN MAO DIES – SEPTEMBER 09, 1976

Clipped from: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/chairman-mao-dies

1976
On this day in 1976, Chinese revolutionary and statesman Mao Zedong, who had been suffering from Parkinson’s disease and other health problems, dies in Beijing at the age of 82. The Communist leader and founder of the People’s Republic of China is considered one of the most influential figures of the 20th century.
Mao was born into a peasant family in the village of Shaoshan in China’s Hunan province on December 26, 1893. During the 1911 Revolution, he was a soldier in the revolutionary army, which eventually defeated the Qing Dynasty. After serving in the army, he resumed his education and eventually moved to Beijing, where he studied Marxist social and political thought. In 1921, he attended the first session of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), which was held in Shanghai. He went on to found the Hunan branch of the CCP and organize workers’ strikes. Marxism held that cultural revolution would be brought about by urban workers; however, Mao came to believe that China’s millions of peasants were the key to change.
In 1934, during his long civil war with Chiang Kai-Shek and his nationalist government, Mao broke through enemy lines and led his followers on the Long March, a trek of some 6,000 miles to northern China. There, he built up his Red Army and fought against the Japanese invaders. In 1945, civil war resumed, and in 1949 the Nationalists were defeated. On October 1, 1949, Mao proclaimed the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC).
Under Mao’s leadership, the Communist Party took control of China’s media and executed its political enemies, including business owners, landlords, former government officials and intellectuals. In 1958, Mao launched the Great Leap Forward, an economic initiative aimed at boosting the country’s agricultural and industrial production. The program involved the establishment of large farming communes, which would free up more workers for industrial jobs. Instead, the plan failed as grain production declined and millions of Chinese died due to famine. In 1966, Mao launched the Cultural Revolution, in an attempt to wipe out China’s old customs and ideas, promote Mao’s teachings and purge the Communist party of his political enemies. Mao urged students and other young people to join the Red Guards, who in turn shut down schools, churches, temples and museums and tortured or killed academics and other authority figures who were viewed as capitalists and anti-revolutionaries. The Cultural Revolution resulted in widespread chaos and civil unrest.
Despite these failures, Mao maintained fanatical followers all across China and, as the founder of modern China, remains one of the most influential figures of the 20th century. After his death, Deng Xiaoping emerged as China’s leader. Today, Mao’s embalmed remains are housed in a mausoleum in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square.

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SEPTEMBER 07, 2017 – THE COLD WAR IN ASIA – UNCLE SAM’S UNFINISHED KOREA-VIETNAM WAR

SEPTEMBER 07, 2017 – THE COLD WAR IN ASIA – UNCLE SAM’S UNFINISHED KOREA-VIETNAM WAR

SEPTEMBER 07, 2017 – THE COLD WAR IN ASIA – UNCLE SAM’S UNFINISHED KOREA-VIETNAM WAR

On September 07, 2017 Uncle Sam’s Korea-Vietnam War remains unfinished. Uncle Sam’s real Enemy is neither Korea nor Vietnam. The real Enemy is the threat of spread of Communism in Asia. Nixon-Kissinger paved the way for Communist China’s admission to the United Nations and as Permanent Member of UN Security Council. Uncle Sam will never get the opportunity again to pass resolution in the United Nations for the use of force to repel the Communist North Korea.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

DOOM DOOMA DOOMSAYER

UNITED NATIONS DEFEATS SOVIET MOTION – SEPTEMBER 07, 1950

Clipped from: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/united-nations-defeats-soviet-motion?

Cold War

1950

Slightly more than two months after the United Nations approved a U.S. resolution calling for the use of force to repel the communist North Korean invasion of South Korea, the Security Council rejects a Soviet resolution that would condemn the American bombing of North Korea. The Security Council action was another victory for the United States in securing U.N. support for the war in Korea.

In June 1950, armed forces from communist North Korea attacked South Korea. Days after the invasion, the United States secured approval in the U.N.’s Security Council for a resolution calling for the use of force to repel the communists. The Soviet Union could have vetoed the resolution, but its representatives were boycotting the Security Council because of the U.N. decision not to seat the communist government of the People’s Republic of China. Just a few days after the Security Council resolution was passed, President Harry S. Truman ordered U.S. military forces into South Korea. The introduction of the U.S. forces turned the tide of the war, and by September 1950, the North Korean forces were in retreat and U.S. planes were bombing military targets inside North Korea. On September 7, the Soviet representative on the Security Council proposed a resolution condemning the United States for its “barbarous” bombing of North Korea. Referring to U.S. policies in Korea as “Hitlerian,” the Russian representative called the bombings “inhuman.” The U.S. representative responded by charging the North Koreans with numerous war crimes, including murdering prisoners of war. He also denied that the bombings were “inhuman,” insisting that the United States was using every effort to warn North Korean civilians to stay away from the military targets being hit. He concluded by stating, “The moral is plain: Those who sow the wind will reap the whirlwind. Moral guilt rests heavily upon the aggressors.” By a vote of 9 to 1, the Security Council defeated the Soviet resolution, with only the Russian representative voting to support it.

The Security Council defeat of the Russian resolution was another victory for the United States in securing U.N. support for the war effort in Korea. This war marked the first time the United Nations had ever approved the use of force, and U.S. officials were determined to maintain U.N. support for what was, in effect, a U.S. military effort. America supplied the vast majority of the ground, air, and sea forces that responded to the Security Council’s resolution calling for the use of force in Korea. The Soviets, sensing the grave consequences of their absence from the vote on that resolution, now desperately tried to attack U.S. actions in Korea. As they discovered with the crushing defeat of their resolution condemning the U.S. bombings, it was too late.

Also on this day

1813

United States nicknamed Uncle Sam

On this day in 1813, the United States gets its nickname, Uncle Sam. The name is linked to Samuel Wilson, a meat packer from Troy, New York, who supplied barrels of beef to the United States Army during the War of 1812.Wilson (1766-1854) stamped the barrels with “U.S.” for United…

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Marines launch Operation Piranha

U.S. Marines and South Vietnamese forces launch Operation Piranha on the Batangan Peninsula, 23 miles south of the Marine base at Chu Lai. This was a follow-up to Operation Starlight, which had been conducted in August. During the course of the operation, the Allied forces stormed a stronghold…

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McNamara Line announced

U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara announces plans to build an electronic anti-infiltration barrier to block communist flow of arms and troops into South Vietnam from the north at the eastern end of the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). The “McNamara Line,” as it became known, would employ state-of-the-art, high-tech…

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SEPTEMBER 07, 2017 – THE COLD WAR IN ASIA – UNCLE SAM’S UNFINISHED KOREA-VIETNAM WAR

SEPTEMBER 07, 2017 – THE COLD WAR IN ASIA – UNCLE SAM’S UNFINISHED KOREA-VIETNAM WAR

SEPTEMBER 07, 2017 – THE COLD WAR IN ASIA – UNCLE SAM’S UNFINISHED KOREA-VIETNAM WAR

On September 07, 2017 Uncle Sam’s Korea-Vietnam War remains unfinished. Uncle Sam’s real Enemy is neither Korea nor Vietnam. The real Enemy is the threat of spread of Communism in Asia. Nixon-Kissinger paved the way for Communist China’s admission to the United Nations and as Permanent Member of UN Security Council. Uncle Sam will never get the opportunity again to pass resolution in the United Nations for the use of force to repel the Communist North Korea.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

DOOM DOOMA DOOMSAYER

UNITED NATIONS DEFEATS SOVIET MOTION – SEPTEMBER 07, 1950

Clipped from: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/united-nations-defeats-soviet-motion?

Cold War

1950

Slightly more than two months after the United Nations approved a U.S. resolution calling for the use of force to repel the communist North Korean invasion of South Korea, the Security Council rejects a Soviet resolution that would condemn the American bombing of North Korea. The Security Council action was another victory for the United States in securing U.N. support for the war in Korea.

In June 1950, armed forces from communist North Korea attacked South Korea. Days after the invasion, the United States secured approval in the U.N.’s Security Council for a resolution calling for the use of force to repel the communists. The Soviet Union could have vetoed the resolution, but its representatives were boycotting the Security Council because of the U.N. decision not to seat the communist government of the People’s Republic of China. Just a few days after the Security Council resolution was passed, President Harry S. Truman ordered U.S. military forces into South Korea. The introduction of the U.S. forces turned the tide of the war, and by September 1950, the North Korean forces were in retreat and U.S. planes were bombing military targets inside North Korea. On September 7, the Soviet representative on the Security Council proposed a resolution condemning the United States for its “barbarous” bombing of North Korea. Referring to U.S. policies in Korea as “Hitlerian,” the Russian representative called the bombings “inhuman.” The U.S. representative responded by charging the North Koreans with numerous war crimes, including murdering prisoners of war. He also denied that the bombings were “inhuman,” insisting that the United States was using every effort to warn North Korean civilians to stay away from the military targets being hit. He concluded by stating, “The moral is plain: Those who sow the wind will reap the whirlwind. Moral guilt rests heavily upon the aggressors.” By a vote of 9 to 1, the Security Council defeated the Soviet resolution, with only the Russian representative voting to support it.

The Security Council defeat of the Russian resolution was another victory for the United States in securing U.N. support for the war effort in Korea. This war marked the first time the United Nations had ever approved the use of force, and U.S. officials were determined to maintain U.N. support for what was, in effect, a U.S. military effort. America supplied the vast majority of the ground, air, and sea forces that responded to the Security Council’s resolution calling for the use of force in Korea. The Soviets, sensing the grave consequences of their absence from the vote on that resolution, now desperately tried to attack U.S. actions in Korea. As they discovered with the crushing defeat of their resolution condemning the U.S. bombings, it was too late.

Also on this day

1813

United States nicknamed Uncle Sam

On this day in 1813, the United States gets its nickname, Uncle Sam. The name is linked to Samuel Wilson, a meat packer from Troy, New York, who supplied barrels of beef to the United States Army during the War of 1812.Wilson (1766-1854) stamped the barrels with “U.S.” for United…

Vietnam War

1965

Marines launch Operation Piranha

U.S. Marines and South Vietnamese forces launch Operation Piranha on the Batangan Peninsula, 23 miles south of the Marine base at Chu Lai. This was a follow-up to Operation Starlight, which had been conducted in August. During the course of the operation, the Allied forces stormed a stronghold…

1967

McNamara Line announced

U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara announces plans to build an electronic anti-infiltration barrier to block communist flow of arms and troops into South Vietnam from the north at the eastern end of the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). The “McNamara Line,” as it became known, would employ state-of-the-art, high-tech…

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LABOR DAY MUSINGS – DEFINING AMERICAN WORKPLACE

LABOR DAY MUSINGS – DEFINING AMERICAN WORKPLACE

In the United States, Labor activists, and Labor Unions made great progress to defend the rights of Working Class. Unfortunately this progress was totally undermined by the US Congress which enacted legislation that took away the dignity of unskilled, hourly wage earners who perform painful toil on the US soil. For example, US President Bill Clinton on August 22, 1996 signed into Law, Public Law 104-193, ‘The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act’ (PRWORA) which places restrictions on the payments of monthly retirement income benefits to workers in the US under Title II of the Social Security Act. Refer to Section 401(b) (2) of PRWORA.

For many unskilled, hourly wage earners performing labor in the US, American Workplace is defined as Work until Death for they have no Retirement option. For those who have no Retirement option, American Workplace is defined by the Book of Genesis, Chapter 3, verses 17 to 19.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA 48104-4162.

IN 1882, LABOR DAY ORIGINATED WITH A PARADE HELD IN NEW YORK CITY

Posted on Monday September 04, 2017 by EMILY NONKO

Clipped from: https://www.6sqft.com/in-1882-labor-day-originated-with-a-parade-held-in-nyc/

An illustration of the first Labor Day parade, via Wiki Commons

Though Labor Day has been embraced as a national holiday–albeit one many Americans don’t know the history of–it originated right here in New York City. The holiday is a result of the city’s labor unions fighting for worker’s rights throughout the 1800’s. The event was first observed, unofficially, on Tuesday, September 5th, 1882, with thousands marching from City Hall up to Union Square. At the time, the New York Times considered the event to be unremarkable. But 135 years later, we celebrate Labor Day on the first Monday of every September as a tribute to all American workers. It’s also a good opportunity to recognize the hard-won accomplishments of New York unions to secure a better workplace for us today.

According to Untapped Cities, the holiday has its roots in a common 19th century tradition in which laborers held picnics and parades to draw awareness to worker’s rights. Organized unions emerged from there, and New York City became a hotbed for labor activists by the Industrial Revolution of the 1880s.

View of South Street during the Industrial Revolution, via the Metropolitan Museum of New York

Back then, laborers were fighting against low wages, unfair hours, child labor and unsafe working environments. (Most workers at the time worked six days a week, 10 or 12 hours a day, and Sunday was the only day off. There were no paid vacations, no sick days and very few breaks during a day.) Two labor groups, the Knights of Labor and the Tailor’s Union, established a city-wide trade consortium–known as the Central Labor Union of New York, Brooklyn, and Jersey City, or the CLU–in January of 1882 to promote similar goals. They called for things like fair wages, an eight-hour workday and an end to child labor. The group also proposed that for one day a year, the country celebrate American workers with parades and celebrations. The CLU went ahead and organized the first parade for the September 5th of that year.

According to Brownstoner, two different men within the labor movement were credited for the parade. Matthew Maguire, a machinist, first proposed a holiday and parade in 1882. He was the secretary of the CLU. But that same year, Peter J. McGuire, cofounder of the American Federation of Labor, also proposed a parade. The debate between the original founder of Labor Day was never settled, though Matthew Maguire usually gets the credit.

The parade began outside City Hall, with the CLU advertising it as a display of the “strength and esprit de corps of the trade and labor organizations.” It was important to the event that the men gave up a day’s pay to partake in the festivities. And they did arrive in droves, with banners and signs with slogans like “NO MONEY MONOPOLY” and “LABOR BUILT THIS REPUBLIC AND LABOR SHALL RULE IT.”

No drinking was allowed at the parade, which featured everyone from the Jewelers Union of Newark to the typographical union, which was known as ‘The Big Six.’ Along the route, which passed Canal Street on its way to Union Square, hundreds of seamstresses hung out the windows cheering the procession, blowing kisses and waving their handkerchiefs. It’s said as many as 20,000 men marched that day.

The party after the marchers hit Union Square was celebratory, according to the New York history book Gotham. Here’s a passage from the book:

Finally, after passing by a reviewing stand filled with labor dignitaries, the participants adjourned, via the elevated, to an uptown picnic at Elm Park. There they danced to jigs by Irish fiddlers and pipers and were serenaded by the Bavarian Mountain Singers while the flags of Ireland, Germany, France, and the USA flapped in the autumn air.

Labor Day parade float in New York City, early 20th century, via New York Department of Labor

Labor parades began in other cities around the county, and for a while the day was known as “the workingman’s holiday.” By 1886, several cities had an annual parade, with legislation in the works to make the day a state holiday. Though New York was the first state to introduce a bill to make the holiday official, Oregon was the first to actually pass it as law in 1887. New York quickly followed suit that same year, as did New Jersey, Massachusetts and Colorado.

Labor unions, of course, went on to secure rights like the eight-hour work day, collective bargaining, health insurance, retirement funds and better wages. These days, the holiday is better known as a marker to the end of summer than a celebration of the working class. But it’s a nice reminder such hard-fought battles, which brought accomplishments that now define the American workplace, took root in New York.

Tags : Labor Day

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