SEPTEMBER 08, 2018 – INTERNATIONAL LITERACY DAY TRIBUTE TO THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA

SEPTEMBER 08, 2018 – INTERNATIONAL LITERACY DAY TRIBUTE TO THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda.

On Saturday, September 08, 2018, International Literacy Day, I pay my tribute to the Seventeen Great Masters of Nalanda Buddhist Monastery. I invite my readers to know about these great teachers and their contributions to the Literacy Traditions of Humanity.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

https://wholedude.com/2015/10/08/tibet-awareness-the-great-masters-of-nalanda/

Clipped from: http://www.holidayscalendar.com/event/international-literacy-day/

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda.

International Literacy Day is a holiday which is celebrated annually on September 8th. The purpose of this day is to raise the world’s awareness of literacy issues that are faced by people all over the world and to endorse campaigns that help increase literacy for all people. It was originally established by UNESCO – the United Nations Educational, Scientific & Cultural Organization – in 1965.

When is International Literacy Day?

This year (2018) September 8 (Saturday)
Next year (2019) September 8 (Sunday)
Last year (2017) September 8 (Friday)

History of International Literacy Day

To combat worldwide issues of illiteracy, UNESCO proclaimed September 8th as International Literacy Day in 1965. The purpose of this observational day was not only to combat illiteracy but also to promote literacy as a tool that could empower individuals as well as whole communities. It is from these humble beginnings that International Literacy Day has bloomed into a tool that could help millions of people around the globe.

As of 2016, about 775 million adults lack even the most basic, minimum literacy skills all over the world. This means that about 1 in 5 adults in the world – or about 20 % of all people – are not literate. Of that 20%, about 66% of those are women. About 75 million of the world’s children are not in school or have dropped out before they have finished. However, thanks to the efforts of UNESCO & World Literacy Day, more and more people are becoming literate and about 4 billion people are currently literate, as of now.

International Literacy Day Customs & Traditions

Every year, UNESCO issues a theme for the celebration of International Literacy Day. For instance, in 2011, the theme was “Literacy & Peace,” in 2013, the theme was “Literacy for the 21st Century” and in 2015, the theme was “Literacy and Sustainable Societies.”

UNESCO and its partners use these themes to highlight the programs which it and its partners use to tackle various parts of the literacy issues in the world. As a result of some of these programs, attention is often raised in the media about literacy issues. Especially on the Internet where the hashtag #literacyday has been trending for the last few years.

International Mother Language Day

International Mother Language Day is an annual worldwide observance that falls on February 21st. This day not only celebrates language diversity all over the world but also remembers the killing of four students on February 21, 1952. These students were killed because they campaigned to officially use their mother language in Bangladesh.

History of International Mother Language Day

International Mother Language Day was originally a social movement that started to defend a person’s right to speak and write in one’s mother language. February 21st was picked as the date because that is when students who were attending the University of Dhaka, Jagannath University and Dhaka Medical College were murdered by police while they were demonstrating for the right to speak in their mother tongue – Bengali. This started a social movement that began to snowball over the next few decades.

Eventually, this social movement was picked up by a Bengali named Rafiqul Islam that was living in Vancouver, British Columbia in Canada. He decided to send a letter to the United Nation to ask for a day to be established that would preserve and protect the languages of the world. In his letter, he stated that February 21st should be the day on which it is celebrated in honor of the killings in Dhaka. This would eventually lead to the proposal of resolution A/RES/61/266.

Finally, in 1999, the United Nations General Assembly passed resolution A/RES/61/266. This resolution set February 21st as International Mother Language Day and called on all member states to promote this observational holiday as a way to promote the preservation and protection of all languages used by people all over the world.

International Mother Language Day Customs & Traditions

Officially, UNESCO and many of its partners promote a number of linguistic and cultural diversity events on International Mother Language Day. Many universities all over the world will host a mother language day and some governments will issue a proclamation on this day. In Bangladesh, people lay flowers at the martyr’s monument known as Shaheed Minar. Also, there are various awards and prizes for the literacy competitions that promote multiculturalism and multilingualism are held on this day.

DALAI LAMA LAUDS NALANDA PRIESTS FOR LOGICAL BUDDHIST TEACHINGS

Clipped from: https://www.thestatesman.com/cities/dalai-lama-lauds-nalanda-priests-for-logical-buddhist-teachings-1502680999.html

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda.

Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama.(Photo: IANS)

Tibetan spiritual leader Dalai Lama on Monday praised the seventeen pandits (priests) of Nalanda for their logical way of teaching Buddhism and said he himself is one of their biggest admirers.

“The only complete and detailed explanation of the ancient Nalanda teaching has persevered in the Tibetan language which is the reason that the Chinese people who are interested in learning Buddhism, are learning the Tibetan language,” he said.

He said the ancestors of Tibetan people had well preserved this knowledge for thousands of years, which enabled Tibetans to expertise in promoting the knowledge in the Tibetan language.

“It is the duty of Tibetan people to continue the practical teachings of those ancestors while at the same time take pride in possessing such vast and profound knowledge passed by them,” he said.

He said he respects all kinds of religious beliefs which only teach love and compassion as the ultimate source of human happiness.

He cited an example of how humans are born out of love and how they survive on love. He emphasised that the masters of Nalanda encourage its followers to approach their teaching with logic and reason rather than following it blindly. Thus, people should experiment and research on the teachings of those masters in light of reason, he added.

He urged the Tibetan people to preserve the rich Tibetan language as it has the potential to serve all the sentient beings on earth. He assured the people that he would live for hundred years to serve humanity and especially to lead the cause of Tibet under his guidance.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA

I am pleased to share an article titled ‘The Seventeen Pandits of Nalanda Monastery’ by Professor James Blumenthal Ph.D. who gives a brief account of Nalanda University and its great influence upon Tibetan Buddhism. I pay my respectful tribute to Professor Blumenthal who passed away on October 09, 2015. May LORD GOD bless his soul.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA

THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA – CENTER OF BUDDHIST LEARNING IN ANCIENT INDIA:

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda.
September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Acharya Nagarjuna.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. ACHARYA NAGARJUNA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. ACHARYA NAGARJUNA.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. ACHARYA NAGARJUNA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. ARYADEVA.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. ARYADEVA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. ASANGA.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. ASANGA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. VASUBANDHU.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. VASUBANDHU.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Dignaga.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. DIGNAGA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Dharmakirti.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA – DHARMAKIRTI.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Guna Prabha and Shakya Prabha.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. GUNA PRABHA AND HIS DISCIPLE SHAKYA PRABHA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Buddhapalita.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. BUDDHAPALITA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Bhavaviveka.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT TEACHERS OF NALANDA. BHAVAVIVEKA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Bhavaviveka.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. ACHARYA BHAVAVIVEKA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Chandrakirti.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. CHANDRAKIRTI.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Padmasambhava, Shantarakshita.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. SHANTARAKSHITA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Shantarakshita.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. SHANTARAKSHITA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Kamalashila, Bhavanakrama.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. KAMALASHILA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Kamalashila, Bhavanakrama.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. KAMALASHILA. BHAVANAKRAMA – THREE STAGES OF MEDITATION.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Haribhadra.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. HARIBHADRA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Vimuktisena.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. VIMUKTISENA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Shantideva.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. SHANTIDEVA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Atisha.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. ATISHA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda. Atisha.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT TEACHERS OF NALANDA. ATISHA.

THE SEVENTEEN PANDITS OF NALANDA MONASTERY

BY JAMES BLUMENTHAL, INFO-BUDDHISM.COM
Posted on October 8th, 2015

Oregon, USA — Nalanda Monastic University was the greatest center of Buddhist learning in India’s glorious past. With upwards of 30,000 monks and nuns including 2,000 teachers living, studying and practicing there during its heyday, Nalanda was unmatched.

Established during the Gupta Dynasty in the late 5th to early 6th century C.E. under the patronage of the Gupta king Shakraditra, the institution survived for six hundred years, through the Pala Dynasty, until ultimately being destroyed in 1203 by Turkish Muslim invaders. In 1204 the last throne-holder (abbot) of Nalanda, Shakyashribhadra, fled to Tibet. In the intervening centuries, however, many of India’s greatest Buddhist masters trained and taught at Nalanda.

Nalanda’s renown as a center for higher learning spread far. It attracted students from as far away as Greece, Persia, China and Tibet. Although Buddhism was naturally the central focus of study, other subjects including astronomy, medicine (Ayurveda), grammar, metaphysics, logic, philosophy of language, classical Hindu philosophy, non-Indian philosophy and so forth were all regularly studied. Chinese pilgrims who visited Nalanda in the 7th century C.E. give detailed accounts of the physical premises and activities in their travelogues. For example, they describe three nine-story buildings comprising the library that housed millions of titles in hundreds of thousands of volumes on a vast variety of topics!

Much like the large Gelug monasteries of Sera, Drepung and Ganden, living quarters were divided according to regions of the world from which the monks and nuns came. There are clear records of a well-populated Tibet Vihara at Nalanda during the later period. In fact, history reveals that at one point there was a Tibetan gatekeeper at Nalanda. The gatekeepers were traditionally the top scholars/debaters at the institution. Their job was to stand “guard” at the gate and defeat in debate any non-Buddhist who proposed to challenge the scholarship and ideas of the institution. If they could not defeat the gatekeeper in debate, they would not be allowed further into the monastery.

The Seventeen Pandits of Nalanda Monastery refers to a grouping of seventeen of the most important and influential Mahayana Buddhist masters from India’s past. His Holiness the Dalai Lama frequently refers to himself as a follower of the lineage of the seventeen Nalanda masters today. He even wrote an exquisite poem in praise of the seventeen.
So who were they? Historically speaking, this particular grouping of Indian masters seems to have become prominent quite recently and to be based on attributions of lam-rim (stages of the path) lineages in Tibet. A likely predecessor to this grouping is an Indian reference to the Six Ornaments of the Southern Continent (i.e., India) and the Two Excellent Ones. These eight form the core of the seventeen.

The Six Ornaments first include Nagarjuna (c. 2nd century C.E.), the revealer of the Perfection of Wisdom Sutras and the systematizer and founder of the Middle Way (Madhyamaka) school of Buddhist philosophy. The most famous treatise of his six texts of reasoning is The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way, probably the single most analyzed, commented upon and discussed philosophical treatise in Buddhism’s history.

The second of the six ornaments is Aryadeva (c. 3rd century C.E.) who is sometimes referred to as Nagarjuna’s heart disciple and sometimes simply as his first authoritative commentator. Like Nagarjuna, Aryadeva is universally revered as an authoritative voice for all subsequent Middle Way commentators and is most well-known for his treatise The Four Hundred Stanzas.
Aryadeva was born as the son of a Sinhalese king and is considered the co – founder of Mahayana philosophy

In addition to the two Middle Way school masters, included among the six ornaments are the two earliest masters from the Mind-Only school (Yogachara/Chittamatra): Asanga (300–390 C.E.), the founder, and his disciple and half-brother, Vasubandhu (c. 4th century C.E.) one of the system’s earliest and most authoritative commentators. In addition to his own treatises, Asanga is also famous, according to tradition, for retrieving the five Maitreya Buddha texts¹ directly from Maitreya in his pure land, Tushita. With regards to Vasubandhu, before becoming a leading exponent of the Mind-Only school, he wrote a famous treatise from the perspective of the Great Exposition school (Vaibhashika) entitled The Treasure of Knowledge (Abhidharmakosha) which is utilized extensively in Tibetan scholastic studies. Traditionally, seven years is dedicated to the study of this text in the Gelug geshe curriculum.

Two additional Mind-Only school proponents round out the six ornaments: Dignaga (6th century C.E.) and Dharmakirti (600–660 C.E.). The two are most famous as the groundbreakers in Buddhist logic and epistemology. Specifically, they wrote philosophical treatises on the contents and means of accruing valid knowledge. They argued that from the Buddhist perspective there were two sources of valid knowledge: logical inference and direct perception. Much of their writings were detailed elaborations on these topics.

The Two Excellent Ones refers to the two great Vinaya masters: Gunaprabha (c. 9th century C.E.) andShakyaprabha. Gunaprabha was a disciple of Vasubandhu’s and is most famous for his treatise, the Vinaya Sutra. Shakyaprabha was a disciple of Shantarakshita (also among the seventeen) and the other major teacher of vinaya among the seventeen. He is particularly associated Mulasarvastivada-vinaya line which has been followed in Tibet since the time of the early Dharma King, Ralpachen (born c. 806 C.E.). His teacher Shantarakshita began this ordination lineage in Tibet when he ordained the first seven Tibetan monks and founded Samye Monastery.

Beyond the Six Ornaments and Two Excellent Ones, are nine additional Indian Buddhist masters, each of whom profoundly impacted the shapes of Indian and/or Tibetan Buddhism for centuries.

Buddhapalita (470–550 C.E.) was one of the great commentators on Nagarjuna’s Madhyamaka thought. He is the earliest Indian Madhyamaka specifically identified as a proponent of the sub-school of Madhyamaka known in Tibet as the Middle Way Consequence school (Prasangika-Madhyamaka). He received this designation in Tibet due to his use of a form of reasoning that drew out the absurd logical consequences of the philosophical rivals of Madhyamakas when he commented on Nagarjuna’s root text on wisdom.

Buddhapalita was subsequently criticized by another Madhyamaka master, Bhavaviveka (500–578 C.E.). He argued that a proper Madhyamaka commentator ought to do more than show the absurdities of other’s views; they also have a responsibility to establish the view of emptiness and to do so with autonomous inferences (svatantranumana). He subsequently became known in Tibet as the “founder” and primary proponent of a sub-school of Madhyamaka known as the Middle Way Autonomy school (Svatantrika-Madhyamaka).

Chandrakirti (600–650 C.E.) is revered by many in Tibet as the founder of the Middle Way Consequence school, often regarded as the highest Buddhist philosophical explanation of reality. He famously came to the defense of Buddhapalita’s use of consequentialist reasoning contra Bhavaviveka’s criticism. In a line of thinking further developed by Je Tsongkhapa (1357–1419 CE) they argued that a Madhyamaka philosopher ought not to utilize autonomous inferences because the very use of that sort of reasoning entailed the acceptance of an inherent nature in the subject of the argument. Since the existence of an inherent nature in anything was precisely what Nagarjuna was refuting, the use of autonomous inference seemed like a fatal flaw for a Madhyamaka. Though historical evidence suggests that Chandrakirti’s views likely did not have extensive support in India until the late period there, by the 13th century in Tibet, his views on a proper understanding of Madhyamaka began to dominate the philosophical landscape and continue to today.

Shantarakshita (725–788 C.E.) was a towering figure in late Indian Buddhist philosophy and immensely influential in Tibet. Philosophically, he is famous for integrating the three major lines of Mahayana philosophy into an integrated coherent system. These were the Madhyamaka, the Yogachara and the logico-epistemological thought of Dharmakirti. Beyond India, he spent the last seventeen years of his life in Tibet, ordaining its first monks and serving as abbot of it first monastery. Moreover, probably nobody has exerted a greater influence on Tibetan Buddhism in terms of the way in which Tibetans approach philosophy. Shantarakshita virtually taught Tibetans how to do philosophy during the early dissemination of the Dharma there.
Two of Shantarakshita’s disciples (in addition to Shakyabhadra mentioned above) are also included in the list of seventeen. Kamalashila (c. 8th century C.E.) likewise was an immensely important figure in India and Tibet. Like his teacher, Kamalashila wrote extensively on Madhyamaka and pramana (logic and epistemology) as well as on meditation theory and practice.
His three Stages of Meditation (Bhavanakrama) texts are among the most cited in traditional Tibet expositions on the topics. Moreover, also like his teacher, he spent extensive time in Tibet during the early dissemination. He famously and successfully defended the Indian gradual approach to enlightenment at the Great Debate at Samye (also called the Council of Lhasa) against the instantaneous approach advocated by Hvashang Mohoyen, the Chinese master. Tibetan histories often recount that since that time Tibetan have followed the Indian method.

Haribhadra (700–770 C.E.), the last of Shantarakshita’s disciples included in the group of seventeen, wrote the most famous and commonly utilized of the 21 Indian commentaries on The Ornament of Clear Realizations by Maitreya and the Mahayana path system in general. The other major commentator on The Ornament of Clear Realizations to be included among the seventeen is Vimuktisena (c. 6th century C.E.) whose text Illuminating the Twenty Thousand: A Commentary on the Ornament is likewise extensively cited by subsequent Tibetan authors.

Shantideva (c. 8th century C.E.) composed what is perhaps the most important and influential classic on how to practice in the Mahayana tradition: A Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life (Bodhisattvacharyavatara) while a monk at Nalanda. His text on the development of bodhichitta and the practice of the six perfections is revered and studied extensively by all Tibetan traditions. His Holiness the Dalai Lama often refers to his favorite passage in Buddhist literature as coming from the dedication section of this text: “As long as space endures, as long as sentient being remain, may I too remain, to dispel the miseries of the world.”

The final master included among the seventeen was the Bengali scholar-adept Atisha (980–1054 C.E.), who was a critical figure in the later dissemination of Buddhism in Tibet. Like many of the others on this list, Atisha’s impact on the shape of Tibetan Buddhism was immense. His classic, The Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment (Bodhipathpradipa) is widely regarded as the root text on the graduated stages of the path presentation found in Tibetan classics like Je Tsongkhapa’s The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment (also commonly referred to by the abbreviated Tibetan name, Lamrim Chenmo), Gampopa’s Jeweled Ornament of Liberation and Patrul Rinpoche’s The Words of My Perfect Teacher among others. In addition to the stages of the path teachings, Atisha also introduced the lojong, or mind training, tradition of Mahayana practice in Tibet. Lojong teachings are quintessential Mahayana teachings in that their aim is to eliminate both the self-cherishing attitude and self-grasping by teaching means to cultivate the altruistic compassion of bodhichitta and the direct realization of emptiness. Like the stages of the path teachings, the mind training tradition is one that is embraced by all Tibetan lineages.

Together the seventeen great masters of Nalanda monastery represent the real high points of Indian Mahayana. The inspiration and teachings of these great masters continue to bless practitioners of the Mahayana to the present day.

Notes

¹ The five Maitreya texts are: The Ornament of Clear Realization (Abhisamayalamkara), The Ornament of Mahayana Sutras (Mahayanasutralamkara), Distinguishing the Middle from the Extremes (Madhyantavibhaga), Distinguishing Phenomena and the Nature of Phenomena (Dharma-dharmata-vibhaga), and The Sublime Continuum (Uttaratantra).

http://buddhistchannel.tv/index.php?id=70,12493,0,0,1,0#.VhaCC_mqqko

JAMES BLUMENTHAL, Ph.D. is an associate professor of Buddhist philosophy at Oregon State University and professor of Buddhist Studies at Maitripa College. He is the author of The Ornament of The Middle Way: A Study of the Madhyamika Thought of Shantarakshita along with more than 40 articles in scholarly journals and popular periodicals on various aspects of Buddhist thought and practice. He recently finished work with Geshe Lhundup Sopa on Steps on the Path: Vol. IV, a commentary on the ‘ Shamatha’ chapter of Lamrim Chanmo of Tsongkhapa which is due for publication in the fall.

Copyright © 2015 LankaWeb.com. All Rights Reserved.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA UNIVERSITY. ‘SEVENTEEN PANDITS OF NALANDA MONASTERY’ BY PROFESSOR JAMES BLUMENTHAL, Ph.D., OREGON STATE UNIVERSITYOn blogs.oregonstate.edu

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda.

TIBET AWARENESS – THE GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda.

TIBET AWARENESS – GREAT MASTERS OF NALANDA. BUDDHIST CENTER OF LEARNING WHICH FLOURISHED FROM 427 TO 1197 CE. AT NALANDA, BIHAR, INDIA.

September 08, 2018. International Literacy Day Tribute to the Great Masters of Nalanda.

TIBET AWARENESS – SEVENTEEN MASTERS OF NALANDA MONASTIC UNIVERSITY. THIS CENTER OF BUDDHIST LEARNING FLOURISHED FOR 600 YEARS. THE CAMPUS COMMUNITY OF 30,000 MONKS, NUNS INCLUDED 2,000 TEACHERS.

 

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FBI Director’s threat assessment demands US-Tibet Direct Dialogue

FBI Director’s threat assessment demands US–Tibet Direct Dialogue

In FBI Director Christopher Wray’s evaluation, China is ‘most significant’ threat to US. In my analysis, the threat posed by Communist China requires an immediate response. On behalf of Living Tibetan Spirits, I recommend US-Tibet Direct Dialogue to confront threats arising from spread of Communism to mainland China. It must be said, Tibetans understand China’s deception better than any other people of our world.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

FBI Director Chris Wray says China is ‘most significant’ threat to US – Business Insider

Clipped from: http://www.businessinsider.com/fbi-director-says-china-is-the-broadest-most-significant-threat-to-the-us-2018-7

FBI Director Christopher Wray at the Aspen Security Forum. Screenshot/Aspen Security Forum

Amid rampant discussion about Russian election interference and espionage, FBI Director Christopher Wray has deemed China the largest, most concerning threat to the US.

Speaking at the Aspen Security Forum on Wednesday, Wray was asked whether he saw China as an adversary and, if so, to what level.

“I think China, from a counterintelligence perspective, in many ways represents the broadest, most challenging, most significant threat we face as a country,” Wray answered.

“And I say that because for them it is a whole of state effort. It is economic espionage as well as traditional espionage; it is nontraditional collectors as well as traditional intelligence operatives; it’s human sources as well as cyber means.

“We have economic-espionage investigations in every state, all 50 states, that trace back to China. It covers everything from corn seeds in Iowa to wind turbines in Massachusetts and everything in between. So the volume of it, the pervasiveness of it, the significance of it, is something I think this country cannot underestimate.”

The comments follow a 2017 report by the US trade representative that accused China of “trade secret theft, rampant online piracy and counterfeiting, and high levels of physical pirated and counterfeit exports.” The report found intellectual-property theft by China was costing the US up to $600 billion annually.

It seems a far more strategic and wide-ranging effort than Russia’s ongoing interference efforts, which dominated headlines in the US this week amid President Donald Trump’s widely panned summit with President Vladimir Putin.

Wray said Russia needed to be dealt with “aggressively,” but he seemed far more concerned with what he called China’s efforts to position itself as “the sole dominant superpower, the sole dominant economic power.”

“They’re trying to replace the US in that role, and so theirs is a long-term game that’s focused on just about every industry, every quarter of society in many ways,” Wray said. “It involves academia, it involves research and development, it involves everything from agriculture to high-tech. And so theirs is a more pervasive, broader approach but in many ways more of a long-term threat to the country.”

This isn’t the first time China’s patience and willingness to play the long game have been described as reasons its interference campaigns are more successful than those of Russia.

John Garnaut. Screenshot

Earlier this year, John Garnaut, who led a secret government inquiry into China’s political influence in Australia, told the US House Armed Services Committee that Russia preferred “focused, sharp strikes,” while Beijing’s actions were more incremental.

“Unlike Russia, which seems to be as much for a good time rather than a long time, the Chinese are strategic, patient, and they set down foundations of organizations and very consistent narratives over a long period of time,” Garnaut told the committee.

Garnaut’s report found China had attempted to influence politics at all levels in Australia. The Australian government has since introduced new foreign-interference laws— much to Beijing’s ire — and the issue is frequently discussed and debated in the public sphere.

It’s this widespread shift toward a consensus on China’s influence and interference attempts that Wray described as “one of the bright spots” since he became FBI director just over 10 months ago.

“It’s one of the few things I’ve seen that, in a country where it feels like some people can’t even agree on what day of the week it is, on this I think people are starting to come together,” Wray said.

“I see it in the interagency, I see it up on the Hill when I’m talking to the intelligence committees across the spectrum. I think people are starting to wake up and rub the cobwebs, or sleep, out of their eyes. And my hope is we’re in a moment where we can pivot and start to take this much more seriously.”



LET THE SUPREME RULER OF TIBET GO HOME

LET THE SUPREME RULER OF TIBET GO HOME

Living Tibetan Spirits welcome the view shared by US Representatives Nancy Pelosi and James McGovern desiring the return of Dalai Lama to Tibet from his exile home in India.

Living Tibetan Spirits desire Supreme Ruler of Tibet to go home if the following two conditions are fully satisfied:

1. Restore identity of entire Tibetan territory by demarcating political boundaries of Tibet and

2. Supreme Ruler of Tibet be replaced by Head of State elected by Tibetan citizens. The political institution of Ganden Phodrang which governs lives of Tibetans must be replaced by elected Government of Tibet.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

LET THE DALAI LAMA GO HOME – THE BOSTON GLOBE

Clipped from: https://www.bostonglobe.com/opinion/2018/07/12/let-dalai-lama-home/KaYlKtEdwE4pHmoljAAMeL/story.html#comments

UP Media handout/EPA-EFE/REX/Shutterstock

The Dalai Lama during an interview in Dharamasala, northern India, on June 26, 2018.

Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, celebrated his 83rd birthday last week. What a wonderful gift it would be if China would treat the Tibetan people with the dignity and respect they deserve, and let the Dalai Lama go home to Tibet, whether to visit or to stay.

The Dalai Lama was born and educated in Tibet. He was recognized as the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama when he was only 2, and he was just 6 when he began his monastic studies. While the Dalai Lama is the spiritual leader of Tibet, he humbly describes himself as a simple Buddhist monk.

Before the Dalai Lama could finish his education, he was called to assume the leadership of his people, after China’s invasion of Tibet, in 1950. He worked to preserve Tibetan autonomy and culture, until years of growing resentment against restrictions imposed by the Chinese Communists led to a full-scale revolt in March 1959. As the uprising was crushed by Chinese troops, the Dalai Lama was forced to flee, and he eventually settled in Dharamsala, in northern India.

Since then, the Dalai Lama has been forced by China to remain in exile. For nearly 60 years, he has not been able to return to his homeland and the people he leads. This is wrong.

Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirms, “Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.” As American citizens, we have that right and exercise it.

The Dalai Lama is renowned the world over for his commitment to peace. He has consistently advocated for nonviolence, even in the face of extreme aggression. In 1989, he won the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of his decades-long nonviolent campaign to end China’s domination of his homeland. In 2007, when Congress awarded the Dalai Lama the Congressional Gold Medal, then-president George W. Bush called him “a man of faith and sincerity and peace.”

Living within China, the Tibetan people have many grievances. Although Chinese authorities see the Dalai Lama as part of the problem, we have long believed that he is part of the solution.

There was a time when the Tibetan goal was independence. But since the 1970s, the Dalai Lama has sought redress through negotiations. In the late 1980s, he proposed the Middle Way Approach as a path toward Tibetan autonomy within China.

Today, his commitment to nonviolence and his recognition as the spiritual leader of Tibetans worldwide confer on him an undeniable legitimacy that would be of great benefit were China willing to restart the dialogue that has been suspended since 2010.

But China has not taken advantage of this opportunity to move toward peace. Instead, authorities view the Dalai Lama with suspicion, disparage him, and accuse him of fomenting separatism. They seem to believe that with his eventual, inevitable death, they will be assured of consolidating their hold on Tibet.

We are not so sure. Today, all around the world, we see the consequences of the repression of religious and ethnic minorities.

There is still time. It is not too late for China to choose a different path. Imagine the world’s reaction if Chinese authorities were to affirm the right of the 14th Dalai Lama to return to his homeland if he so desires. Imagine if they were to afford His Holiness the respect he deserves as a man of peace. Imagine if through good-faith dialogue they sought to ease tensions, rather than implementing policies that exacerbate them. Imagine.

We urge our fellow Americans to join in calling on Chinese leaders to let the Dalai Lama go home.

US Representative Nancy Pelosi of California is House minority leader. US Representative James McGovern of Massachusetts is a ranking member of the House Rules Committee.

 

SUPREME RULER OF TIBET CELEBRATES HIS 83rd BIRTHDAY IN LEH, LADAKH, INDIA

SUPREME RULER OF TIBET CELEBRATES HIS 83rd BIRTHDAY IN LEH, LADAKH, INDIA

On Friday, July 06, 2018 Living Tibetan Spirits greet His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama on the occasion of his 83rd birthday to acknowledge him as Supreme Ruler of Tibet. For Tibetans, the title Dalai Lama is all about rulership and governance of Tibet. No other institution of government can replace Supreme Ruler of Tibet during his lifetime.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

HIS HOLINESS THE DALAI LAMA CUTS A CAKE ON HIS 83rd BIRTHDAY

Clipped from: http://www.ptcnews.tv/his-holiness-the-dalai-lama-cuts-a-cake-on-his-83rd-birthday/

His Holiness the Dalai Lama cuts a cake on his 83rd birthday

His Holiness the Dalai Lama cuts a cake on his 83rd birthday

Tibetan spiritual leader His Holiness The Dalai Lama turned 83 on Friday. Special prayers were held in Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir for the long life.

Large crowds donning traditional dresses began to assemble since morning at the Shewatsel Phodrang complex on the outskirts of Leh for the celebrations. Tibetan Prime Minister Lobsang Sangay also attended the celebrations here.

The Dalai Lama, revered by the Tibetans as a “living god”, attended the prayers and cut the cake on his birthday.

“This time again His Holiness decided to celebrate his birthday with the people of Leh,” said a spokesperson for the Dalai Lama’s office.

“I am very happy to be here once more,” the spiritual leader told the gathering on reaching here on Tuesday.

“I seem to be physically fit and if that continues I hope to spend some time here, avoiding the monsoon on the plains. You people of Ladakh have a special bond with me based on your faith and loving-kindness, of which I am very appreciative,” he added.

Born on July 6, 1935, at Taktser hamlet in northeastern Tibet, the Dalai Lama was recognised at the age of two as the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso.

The Dalai Lama was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989 for his non-violent campaign for democracy and freedom in his homeland.

-PTC News

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LIVING TIBETAN SPIRITS OPPOSE COLONIZATION OF LAND OF TIBET

LIVING TIBETAN SPIRITS OPPOSE COLONIZATION OF LAND OF TIBET

India, "ARYABHOOMI" of Tibet won freedom to reject colonization of India by British Empire. For the same reason, Living Tibetan Spirits oppose colonization of Land of Tibet by evil Red Chinese Empire. Colonization of Tibet poses grave dangers to environment and climate of India as well as all other nations of South Asia.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

INDIA IS OUR ARYABHOOMI, SAYS THE DALAI LAMA – THE HINDU

Clipped from: http://www.thehindu.com/society/india-is-our-aryabhoomi-dalai-lama/article24180001.ece

The 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso. | Photo Credit: M.A. SRIRAM

Giving up the idea of an independent Tibet, the Dalai Lama talks of peace, democracy and self-rule

The institution of the Dalai Lama, the spiritual and political head of the Tibetans, has survived for over 400 years. Since 2001, however, the 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, has reduced his involvement in politics in a bid to introduce representative democracy. In an exclusive interview, the Nobel Peace Prize winner spoke about seeking autonomy for Tibet within China, and his commitment to reviving ancient Indian Buddhist teachings. Edited excerpts:

On 60 years of exile and the possibility of returning home.

I have lived in India for the better part of my life, but the possibility of returning to Tibet is there. Since we are not seeking separation, there’s a good chance that we may return. I admire the model of the European Union where sovereign nations come together to protect common regional interests. In our times, sovereignty is important but protecting common interest more so. Tibet is an independent nation, but now the time has come for it to embrace change. The ancient reality has changed. We will remain within the People’s Republic of China, but we should have the full right to preserve our ecology and culture. Tibetan refugees have preserved well our traditional language and knowledge systems. Our people have been the most successful refugee community anywhere. They are hardworking and law-abiding. While the main base is India, they have also moved to Canada, Switzerland, and other European countries.

What about the Tibetans in Tibet?

There are six million Tibetans living inside Tibet who trust me. So, I have the moral responsibility to protect them as well. Although I gave up handling political matters since 2001, when I retired, I continued to be partially involved for the next 10 years. In 2011, I retired fully. Since childhood, I have admired democracy. Our old system of the Dalai Lama and regents has too much power vested in a few people. That is a mistake. The best thing is a democratic system. So I began work on creating a democratic system for Tibetans. We created the system of elected political leadership in 2001.

Within Tibet, my priority is the environment. All major rivers of Asia come from Tibet. I think over a billion people depend on rivers originating from Tibet — Brahmaputra, Mekong, Indus, etc. Due to global warming and other reasons, this is affected. Once I met a Chinese ecologist who said that global warming levels in the Tibetan plateau are as much as in the North and South Poles, so he called Tibet the Third Pole. The environmental damage and deforestation needs to stop.

Ourpeople have been the most successful refugee community anywhere. They are hardworking and lawabidingDalai Lama

On reviving ancient Indian knowledge systems.

Since childhood, we have studied texts authored by Indian Buddhist scholars such as Nagarjuna, Aryadeva, Buddhapalita and Dharmakirti; all our knowledge comes from India. Buddha attained enlightenment here. All the great masters of Nalanda are Indian. Hence, we Tibetans refer to India as our Aryabhoomi (precious land). Historically, our relation is very deep. When Buddhists go to Bodh Gaya, they collect the leaves of the Bodhi tree and sometimes even the bird droppings! (laughs) When we come to India, we feel we have returned to our spiritual home. So, I feel very strongly about subjects such as ancient Indian psychology. Practices such as Shamata and Vipassana involve analytical meditation, and single-minded focus to analyze the nature of reality. In the Judeo-Christian tradition, this is not emphasized.

The problems of the current world are our own creation. War mobilizes violence. It is a human creation. We need to revive the ancient Indian concept of karuna (compassion) and ahimsa (non-violence). The 1,000-year-old tradition of secularism is very relevant to today’s world. I consider myself a messenger of ancient Indian thought.

The Nalanda tradition is a scientific way. The Buddha himself once asked his followers to not accept his teachings out of faith or devotion, but only after thorough investigation. In fact, some of his teachings were rejected by his followers this way. It was around 8 CE that an Indian Buddhist master, Santarakshita, brought Buddha dharma to Tibet. I strongly feel this tradition must be preserved, as an academic subject. Tibetan knowledge is Indian knowledge. It’s a pity that modern India has completely neglected it.

On religious harmony.

Though the fundamental message of all religions is the same, people continue to fight over it. In Sri Lanka, Buddhists are fighting with Tamil Hindus, and in Myanmar, they are fighting with Muslims. The Buddhists don’t believe in god. So between Buddhists and non-Buddhists there are serious differences. This ought to be resolved through intellectual debate. Many Nalanda masters learnt much from non-Buddhists through constructive debate. That is the greatness of India. Though there were differences in philosophical thought, it was never used for propagating violence. Hindu, Jain and Buddhist philosophies are home-grown, and Zoroastrian, Judaism and Christianity came from outside. Today, they all live together here. I am completely convinced that religious harmony is possible everywhere.

vidya.v

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THE TIBET QUESTION – UNITY OF TIBETAN TERRITORY

THE TIBET QUESTION – UNITY OF TIBETAN TERRITORY IS MOST IMPORTANT:

The Tibet Question – Unity of Tibetan Territory is Most Important.

Living Tibetan Spirits demand Unity of entire Tibetan territory as the first step to resolve problem called ‘The Tibet Question’. During 1974, Special Frontier Force dispatched me to visit Bylakuppe and I spent over four weeks of time speaking to Tibetan children. Tibetans fully understand the boundaries of Tibet and there must be no compromise on this issue.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

UNITY OF THREE PROVINCES OF TIBET IS MOST IMPORTANT: HIS HOLINESS THE DALAI LAMA IN BYLAKUPPE

Clipped from: http://tibet.net/2017/12/unity-of-three-provinces-of-tibet-is-most-important-his-holiness-the-dalai-lama-in-bylakuppe/

The Tibet Question – Unity of Tibetan Territory is Most Important.

 

His Holiness the Dalai Lama addressing recently arrived Tibetan pilgrims from Tibet and Tibetan teachers gathered for a workshop on Secular Ethics in the Sera Lachi Assembly Hall in Bylakuppe, Karnataka, India on 22 December 2017. Photo/Tenzin Phende/DIIR

Bylakuppe: His Holiness the Dalai Lama gave an audience to new arrivals from Tibet and a group of Tibetan teachers gathered for Secular ethics workshop on Friday morning.

“Tibetans in Tibet are the real masters of the country. Despite facing immense hardship, you have kept your spirits up. In 1959, the whole of Tibet was thrown into turmoil. There is a story that after the bombardment of Lhasa, Mao Zedong asked what happened to the Dalai Lama. When he heard that I had escaped to India, he is said to have replied, ‘Then we’ve lost.’”

“The Chinese authorities thought the issue of Tibet would simply fade away, but even after 58 years it hasn’t. In 1959, many countries had no idea about Tibet; they do now,” His Holiness said, urging them to uphold the spirit.

“What is important,” he said, “is that all three provinces of Tibet remain united, standing together in solidarity,” His Holiness told the gathering.

“Tibetans should pride themselves of its thousand millennium old cultural heritage, rooted in the profound Nalanda teachings.”

The Tibet Question – Unity of Tibetan Territory is Most Important.

 

His Holiness the Dalai Lama and President Dr Lobsang Sangay, Central Tibetan Administration arrives at the Sera Lachi Assembly hall to meet the Tibetan pilgrims from Tibet and participants of the workshop on Secular ethics. Photo/Tenzin Phende/DIIR

“We started appealing to the UN late 1959, but, as Pandit Nehru advised me, the USA will not go to war with China over Tibet. We concluded that eventually we would have to deal with the Chinese government. Until now the Chinese policy has been to denigrate the Tibetan people and their culture, nevertheless we remain hopeful of being able to preserve our culture and values within the People’s Republic of China” he added.

His Holiness emphasized “Tibetan language is the key to hold Tibetan alive and unity. Nothing can exterminate Tibetan language which started more than 1000 years ago.”

His Holiness briefly explained about Middle way approach and its appreciation from Chinese intellects.

The Tibet Question – Unity of Tibetan Territory is Most Important.

 

President of Central Tibetan Administration, Dr Lobsang Sangay addressing recently arrived Tibetan pilgrims from Tibet and Tibetan teachers gathered for a workshop on Secular Ethics in the Sera Lachi Assembly Hall in Bylakuppe, Karnataka, India on 22 December 2017. Photo/Tenzin Phende/DIIR

President Dr Lobsang Sangay, Central Tibetan Administration also addressed the new arrivals and the participants of the workshop on Secular ethics.

In his talk, he emphasized that Middle Way is best approach to have win-win situation and expressed hope for positive changes to take place within China. “The present situation inside Tibet is indeed sad and unfortunate, but I am hopeful that in time, changes will take place within China.”

“We are seeking genuine autonomy for Tibet through non-violence and Chinese government can’t say no to this as it does not contradict China’s sovereignty and One China Policy,” he said.

Enumerating the practicality of Middle Way Approach, under the prevailing situation inside Tibet and exile, Dr Sangay highlighted the widespread support and appreciation expressed by world leaders for the policy envisioned by His Holiness the Dalai Lama.

The Tibet Question – Unity of Tibetan Territory is Most Important.

 

President of Central Tibetan Administration, Dr Lobsang Sangay addressing recently arrived Tibetan pilgrims from Tibet and Tibetan teachers gathered for a workshop on Secular Ethics in the Sera Lachi Assembly Hall in Bylakuppe, Karnataka, India on 22 December 2017. Photo/Tenzin Phende/DIIR

He further said, “Tibetan in exile practice full democracy rather than Chinese communist party of holding power by few people. Many of high-level authorities are mostly Chinese. So we seek to genuine autonomy, which is within framework of Peoples Republic of China’s constitution.”

President Dr Sangay urged people to invest in education rather than wasting money on luxury. “Since 2011, Kashag has given top priority to education and will continue to do so.”

Towards the end, he urged for the Tibetans to stay united. “Keeping differences aside, if we all work together, the dreams and the aspirations of the Tibetan people in Tibet and in exile will be fulfilled,” the President said.

filed by Correspondent Tenzin Phende-

The Tibet Question – Unity of Tibetan Territory is Most Important.

 

Tibetan teachers gathered for a workshop on Secular Ethics listening to His Holiness the Dalai Lama during their meeting at Sera Lachi Assembly Hall in Bylakuppe, Karnataka, India on December 22, 2017. Photo/Tenzin Phende/DIIR

The Tibet Question – Unity of Tibetan Territory is Most Important.

 

MONDAY, MAY 28, 2018 – UNKNOWN SOLDIER OF AMERICA PAYS TRIBUTE TO FALLEN FREEDOM FIGHTERS OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

MONDAY, MAY 28, 2018 – UNKNOWN SOLDIER OF AMERICA PAYS TRIBUTE TO FALLEN FREEDOM FIGHTERS OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

On Monday, May 28, 2018, Memorial Day, Living Tibetan Spirits pay tribute to fallen freedom fighters of Special Frontier Force. I trained at Special Frontier Force with US patronage to fight war in occupied Tibet to secure Freedom. This war qualifies me as ‘Unknown Soldier of America’ for the war serves to defend America from Enemy. While training for this US sponsored military mission, freedom fighters of Special Frontier Force gave their precious lives. Their mortal remains lie buried in unmarked graves in Chittagong Hill Tracts with none to pay respects with flowers.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

PRESIDENT DONALD J. TRUMP PROCLAIMS MEMORIAL DAY, MAY 28, 2018, AS A DAY OF PRAYER FOR PERMANENT PEACE

Monday, May 28, 2018, Memorial Day – Unknown Soldier of America pays tribute to fallen freedom fighters of Special Frontier Force.

Clipped from: https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/president-donald-j-trump-proclaims-memorial-day-may-28-2018-day-prayer-permanent-peace/

Monday, May 28, 2018, Memorial Day Proclamation by President Donald J. Trump.
Monday, May 28, 2018, Memorial Day – Unknown Soldier of America pays tribute to fallen freedom fighters of Special Frontier Force.