FBI Director’s threat assessment demands US-Tibet Direct Dialogue

FBI Director’s threat assessment demands US–Tibet Direct Dialogue

In FBI Director Christopher Wray’s evaluation, China is ‘most significant’ threat to US. In my analysis, the threat posed by Communist China requires an immediate response. On behalf of Living Tibetan Spirits, I recommend US-Tibet Direct Dialogue to confront threats arising from spread of Communism to mainland China. It must be said, Tibetans understand China’s deception better than any other people of our world.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

FBI Director Chris Wray says China is ‘most significant’ threat to US – Business Insider

Clipped from: http://www.businessinsider.com/fbi-director-says-china-is-the-broadest-most-significant-threat-to-the-us-2018-7

FBI Director Christopher Wray at the Aspen Security Forum. Screenshot/Aspen Security Forum

Amid rampant discussion about Russian election interference and espionage, FBI Director Christopher Wray has deemed China the largest, most concerning threat to the US.

Speaking at the Aspen Security Forum on Wednesday, Wray was asked whether he saw China as an adversary and, if so, to what level.

“I think China, from a counterintelligence perspective, in many ways represents the broadest, most challenging, most significant threat we face as a country,” Wray answered.

“And I say that because for them it is a whole of state effort. It is economic espionage as well as traditional espionage; it is nontraditional collectors as well as traditional intelligence operatives; it’s human sources as well as cyber means.

“We have economic-espionage investigations in every state, all 50 states, that trace back to China. It covers everything from corn seeds in Iowa to wind turbines in Massachusetts and everything in between. So the volume of it, the pervasiveness of it, the significance of it, is something I think this country cannot underestimate.”

The comments follow a 2017 report by the US trade representative that accused China of “trade secret theft, rampant online piracy and counterfeiting, and high levels of physical pirated and counterfeit exports.” The report found intellectual-property theft by China was costing the US up to $600 billion annually.

It seems a far more strategic and wide-ranging effort than Russia’s ongoing interference efforts, which dominated headlines in the US this week amid President Donald Trump’s widely panned summit with President Vladimir Putin.

Wray said Russia needed to be dealt with “aggressively,” but he seemed far more concerned with what he called China’s efforts to position itself as “the sole dominant superpower, the sole dominant economic power.”

“They’re trying to replace the US in that role, and so theirs is a long-term game that’s focused on just about every industry, every quarter of society in many ways,” Wray said. “It involves academia, it involves research and development, it involves everything from agriculture to high-tech. And so theirs is a more pervasive, broader approach but in many ways more of a long-term threat to the country.”

This isn’t the first time China’s patience and willingness to play the long game have been described as reasons its interference campaigns are more successful than those of Russia.

John Garnaut. Screenshot

Earlier this year, John Garnaut, who led a secret government inquiry into China’s political influence in Australia, told the US House Armed Services Committee that Russia preferred “focused, sharp strikes,” while Beijing’s actions were more incremental.

“Unlike Russia, which seems to be as much for a good time rather than a long time, the Chinese are strategic, patient, and they set down foundations of organizations and very consistent narratives over a long period of time,” Garnaut told the committee.

Garnaut’s report found China had attempted to influence politics at all levels in Australia. The Australian government has since introduced new foreign-interference laws— much to Beijing’s ire — and the issue is frequently discussed and debated in the public sphere.

It’s this widespread shift toward a consensus on China’s influence and interference attempts that Wray described as “one of the bright spots” since he became FBI director just over 10 months ago.

“It’s one of the few things I’ve seen that, in a country where it feels like some people can’t even agree on what day of the week it is, on this I think people are starting to come together,” Wray said.

“I see it in the interagency, I see it up on the Hill when I’m talking to the intelligence committees across the spectrum. I think people are starting to wake up and rub the cobwebs, or sleep, out of their eyes. And my hope is we’re in a moment where we can pivot and start to take this much more seriously.”



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LET THE SUPREME RULER OF TIBET GO HOME

LET THE SUPREME RULER OF TIBET GO HOME

Living Tibetan Spirits welcome the view shared by US Representatives Nancy Pelosi and James McGovern desiring the return of Dalai Lama to Tibet from his exile home in India.

Living Tibetan Spirits desire Supreme Ruler of Tibet to go home if the following two conditions are fully satisfied:

1. Restore identity of entire Tibetan territory by demarcating political boundaries of Tibet and

2. Supreme Ruler of Tibet be replaced by Head of State elected by Tibetan citizens. The political institution of Ganden Phodrang which governs lives of Tibetans must be replaced by elected Government of Tibet.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

LET THE DALAI LAMA GO HOME – THE BOSTON GLOBE

Clipped from: https://www.bostonglobe.com/opinion/2018/07/12/let-dalai-lama-home/KaYlKtEdwE4pHmoljAAMeL/story.html#comments

UP Media handout/EPA-EFE/REX/Shutterstock

The Dalai Lama during an interview in Dharamasala, northern India, on June 26, 2018.

Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, celebrated his 83rd birthday last week. What a wonderful gift it would be if China would treat the Tibetan people with the dignity and respect they deserve, and let the Dalai Lama go home to Tibet, whether to visit or to stay.

The Dalai Lama was born and educated in Tibet. He was recognized as the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama when he was only 2, and he was just 6 when he began his monastic studies. While the Dalai Lama is the spiritual leader of Tibet, he humbly describes himself as a simple Buddhist monk.

Before the Dalai Lama could finish his education, he was called to assume the leadership of his people, after China’s invasion of Tibet, in 1950. He worked to preserve Tibetan autonomy and culture, until years of growing resentment against restrictions imposed by the Chinese Communists led to a full-scale revolt in March 1959. As the uprising was crushed by Chinese troops, the Dalai Lama was forced to flee, and he eventually settled in Dharamsala, in northern India.

Since then, the Dalai Lama has been forced by China to remain in exile. For nearly 60 years, he has not been able to return to his homeland and the people he leads. This is wrong.

Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirms, “Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.” As American citizens, we have that right and exercise it.

The Dalai Lama is renowned the world over for his commitment to peace. He has consistently advocated for nonviolence, even in the face of extreme aggression. In 1989, he won the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of his decades-long nonviolent campaign to end China’s domination of his homeland. In 2007, when Congress awarded the Dalai Lama the Congressional Gold Medal, then-president George W. Bush called him “a man of faith and sincerity and peace.”

Living within China, the Tibetan people have many grievances. Although Chinese authorities see the Dalai Lama as part of the problem, we have long believed that he is part of the solution.

There was a time when the Tibetan goal was independence. But since the 1970s, the Dalai Lama has sought redress through negotiations. In the late 1980s, he proposed the Middle Way Approach as a path toward Tibetan autonomy within China.

Today, his commitment to nonviolence and his recognition as the spiritual leader of Tibetans worldwide confer on him an undeniable legitimacy that would be of great benefit were China willing to restart the dialogue that has been suspended since 2010.

But China has not taken advantage of this opportunity to move toward peace. Instead, authorities view the Dalai Lama with suspicion, disparage him, and accuse him of fomenting separatism. They seem to believe that with his eventual, inevitable death, they will be assured of consolidating their hold on Tibet.

We are not so sure. Today, all around the world, we see the consequences of the repression of religious and ethnic minorities.

There is still time. It is not too late for China to choose a different path. Imagine the world’s reaction if Chinese authorities were to affirm the right of the 14th Dalai Lama to return to his homeland if he so desires. Imagine if they were to afford His Holiness the respect he deserves as a man of peace. Imagine if through good-faith dialogue they sought to ease tensions, rather than implementing policies that exacerbate them. Imagine.

We urge our fellow Americans to join in calling on Chinese leaders to let the Dalai Lama go home.

US Representative Nancy Pelosi of California is House minority leader. US Representative James McGovern of Massachusetts is a ranking member of the House Rules Committee.

 

SUPREME RULER OF TIBET CELEBRATES HIS 83rd BIRTHDAY IN LEH, LADAKH, INDIA

SUPREME RULER OF TIBET CELEBRATES HIS 83rd BIRTHDAY IN LEH, LADAKH, INDIA

On Friday, July 06, 2018 Living Tibetan Spirits greet His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama on the occasion of his 83rd birthday to acknowledge him as Supreme Ruler of Tibet. For Tibetans, the title Dalai Lama is all about rulership and governance of Tibet. No other institution of government can replace Supreme Ruler of Tibet during his lifetime.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

HIS HOLINESS THE DALAI LAMA CUTS A CAKE ON HIS 83rd BIRTHDAY

Clipped from: http://www.ptcnews.tv/his-holiness-the-dalai-lama-cuts-a-cake-on-his-83rd-birthday/

His Holiness the Dalai Lama cuts a cake on his 83rd birthday

His Holiness the Dalai Lama cuts a cake on his 83rd birthday

Tibetan spiritual leader His Holiness The Dalai Lama turned 83 on Friday. Special prayers were held in Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir for the long life.

Large crowds donning traditional dresses began to assemble since morning at the Shewatsel Phodrang complex on the outskirts of Leh for the celebrations. Tibetan Prime Minister Lobsang Sangay also attended the celebrations here.

The Dalai Lama, revered by the Tibetans as a “living god”, attended the prayers and cut the cake on his birthday.

“This time again His Holiness decided to celebrate his birthday with the people of Leh,” said a spokesperson for the Dalai Lama’s office.

“I am very happy to be here once more,” the spiritual leader told the gathering on reaching here on Tuesday.

“I seem to be physically fit and if that continues I hope to spend some time here, avoiding the monsoon on the plains. You people of Ladakh have a special bond with me based on your faith and loving-kindness, of which I am very appreciative,” he added.

Born on July 6, 1935, at Taktser hamlet in northeastern Tibet, the Dalai Lama was recognised at the age of two as the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso.

The Dalai Lama was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989 for his non-violent campaign for democracy and freedom in his homeland.

-PTC News

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LIVING TIBETAN SPIRITS OPPOSE COLONIZATION OF LAND OF TIBET

LIVING TIBETAN SPIRITS OPPOSE COLONIZATION OF LAND OF TIBET

India, "ARYABHOOMI" of Tibet won freedom to reject colonization of India by British Empire. For the same reason, Living Tibetan Spirits oppose colonization of Land of Tibet by evil Red Chinese Empire. Colonization of Tibet poses grave dangers to environment and climate of India as well as all other nations of South Asia.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

INDIA IS OUR ARYABHOOMI, SAYS THE DALAI LAMA – THE HINDU

Clipped from: http://www.thehindu.com/society/india-is-our-aryabhoomi-dalai-lama/article24180001.ece

The 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso. | Photo Credit: M.A. SRIRAM

Giving up the idea of an independent Tibet, the Dalai Lama talks of peace, democracy and self-rule

The institution of the Dalai Lama, the spiritual and political head of the Tibetans, has survived for over 400 years. Since 2001, however, the 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, has reduced his involvement in politics in a bid to introduce representative democracy. In an exclusive interview, the Nobel Peace Prize winner spoke about seeking autonomy for Tibet within China, and his commitment to reviving ancient Indian Buddhist teachings. Edited excerpts:

On 60 years of exile and the possibility of returning home.

I have lived in India for the better part of my life, but the possibility of returning to Tibet is there. Since we are not seeking separation, there’s a good chance that we may return. I admire the model of the European Union where sovereign nations come together to protect common regional interests. In our times, sovereignty is important but protecting common interest more so. Tibet is an independent nation, but now the time has come for it to embrace change. The ancient reality has changed. We will remain within the People’s Republic of China, but we should have the full right to preserve our ecology and culture. Tibetan refugees have preserved well our traditional language and knowledge systems. Our people have been the most successful refugee community anywhere. They are hardworking and law-abiding. While the main base is India, they have also moved to Canada, Switzerland, and other European countries.

What about the Tibetans in Tibet?

There are six million Tibetans living inside Tibet who trust me. So, I have the moral responsibility to protect them as well. Although I gave up handling political matters since 2001, when I retired, I continued to be partially involved for the next 10 years. In 2011, I retired fully. Since childhood, I have admired democracy. Our old system of the Dalai Lama and regents has too much power vested in a few people. That is a mistake. The best thing is a democratic system. So I began work on creating a democratic system for Tibetans. We created the system of elected political leadership in 2001.

Within Tibet, my priority is the environment. All major rivers of Asia come from Tibet. I think over a billion people depend on rivers originating from Tibet — Brahmaputra, Mekong, Indus, etc. Due to global warming and other reasons, this is affected. Once I met a Chinese ecologist who said that global warming levels in the Tibetan plateau are as much as in the North and South Poles, so he called Tibet the Third Pole. The environmental damage and deforestation needs to stop.

Ourpeople have been the most successful refugee community anywhere. They are hardworking and lawabidingDalai Lama

On reviving ancient Indian knowledge systems.

Since childhood, we have studied texts authored by Indian Buddhist scholars such as Nagarjuna, Aryadeva, Buddhapalita and Dharmakirti; all our knowledge comes from India. Buddha attained enlightenment here. All the great masters of Nalanda are Indian. Hence, we Tibetans refer to India as our Aryabhoomi (precious land). Historically, our relation is very deep. When Buddhists go to Bodh Gaya, they collect the leaves of the Bodhi tree and sometimes even the bird droppings! (laughs) When we come to India, we feel we have returned to our spiritual home. So, I feel very strongly about subjects such as ancient Indian psychology. Practices such as Shamata and Vipassana involve analytical meditation, and single-minded focus to analyze the nature of reality. In the Judeo-Christian tradition, this is not emphasized.

The problems of the current world are our own creation. War mobilizes violence. It is a human creation. We need to revive the ancient Indian concept of karuna (compassion) and ahimsa (non-violence). The 1,000-year-old tradition of secularism is very relevant to today’s world. I consider myself a messenger of ancient Indian thought.

The Nalanda tradition is a scientific way. The Buddha himself once asked his followers to not accept his teachings out of faith or devotion, but only after thorough investigation. In fact, some of his teachings were rejected by his followers this way. It was around 8 CE that an Indian Buddhist master, Santarakshita, brought Buddha dharma to Tibet. I strongly feel this tradition must be preserved, as an academic subject. Tibetan knowledge is Indian knowledge. It’s a pity that modern India has completely neglected it.

On religious harmony.

Though the fundamental message of all religions is the same, people continue to fight over it. In Sri Lanka, Buddhists are fighting with Tamil Hindus, and in Myanmar, they are fighting with Muslims. The Buddhists don’t believe in god. So between Buddhists and non-Buddhists there are serious differences. This ought to be resolved through intellectual debate. Many Nalanda masters learnt much from non-Buddhists through constructive debate. That is the greatness of India. Though there were differences in philosophical thought, it was never used for propagating violence. Hindu, Jain and Buddhist philosophies are home-grown, and Zoroastrian, Judaism and Christianity came from outside. Today, they all live together here. I am completely convinced that religious harmony is possible everywhere.

vidya.v

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THE TIBET QUESTION – UNITY OF TIBETAN TERRITORY

THE TIBET QUESTION – UNITY OF TIBETAN TERRITORY IS MOST IMPORTANT:

The Tibet Question – Unity of Tibetan Territory is Most Important.

Living Tibetan Spirits demand Unity of entire Tibetan territory as the first step to resolve problem called ‘The Tibet Question’. During 1974, Special Frontier Force dispatched me to visit Bylakuppe and I spent over four weeks of time speaking to Tibetan children. Tibetans fully understand the boundaries of Tibet and there must be no compromise on this issue.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

UNITY OF THREE PROVINCES OF TIBET IS MOST IMPORTANT: HIS HOLINESS THE DALAI LAMA IN BYLAKUPPE

Clipped from: http://tibet.net/2017/12/unity-of-three-provinces-of-tibet-is-most-important-his-holiness-the-dalai-lama-in-bylakuppe/

The Tibet Question – Unity of Tibetan Territory is Most Important.

 

His Holiness the Dalai Lama addressing recently arrived Tibetan pilgrims from Tibet and Tibetan teachers gathered for a workshop on Secular Ethics in the Sera Lachi Assembly Hall in Bylakuppe, Karnataka, India on 22 December 2017. Photo/Tenzin Phende/DIIR

Bylakuppe: His Holiness the Dalai Lama gave an audience to new arrivals from Tibet and a group of Tibetan teachers gathered for Secular ethics workshop on Friday morning.

“Tibetans in Tibet are the real masters of the country. Despite facing immense hardship, you have kept your spirits up. In 1959, the whole of Tibet was thrown into turmoil. There is a story that after the bombardment of Lhasa, Mao Zedong asked what happened to the Dalai Lama. When he heard that I had escaped to India, he is said to have replied, ‘Then we’ve lost.’”

“The Chinese authorities thought the issue of Tibet would simply fade away, but even after 58 years it hasn’t. In 1959, many countries had no idea about Tibet; they do now,” His Holiness said, urging them to uphold the spirit.

“What is important,” he said, “is that all three provinces of Tibet remain united, standing together in solidarity,” His Holiness told the gathering.

“Tibetans should pride themselves of its thousand millennium old cultural heritage, rooted in the profound Nalanda teachings.”

The Tibet Question – Unity of Tibetan Territory is Most Important.

 

His Holiness the Dalai Lama and President Dr Lobsang Sangay, Central Tibetan Administration arrives at the Sera Lachi Assembly hall to meet the Tibetan pilgrims from Tibet and participants of the workshop on Secular ethics. Photo/Tenzin Phende/DIIR

“We started appealing to the UN late 1959, but, as Pandit Nehru advised me, the USA will not go to war with China over Tibet. We concluded that eventually we would have to deal with the Chinese government. Until now the Chinese policy has been to denigrate the Tibetan people and their culture, nevertheless we remain hopeful of being able to preserve our culture and values within the People’s Republic of China” he added.

His Holiness emphasized “Tibetan language is the key to hold Tibetan alive and unity. Nothing can exterminate Tibetan language which started more than 1000 years ago.”

His Holiness briefly explained about Middle way approach and its appreciation from Chinese intellects.

The Tibet Question – Unity of Tibetan Territory is Most Important.

 

President of Central Tibetan Administration, Dr Lobsang Sangay addressing recently arrived Tibetan pilgrims from Tibet and Tibetan teachers gathered for a workshop on Secular Ethics in the Sera Lachi Assembly Hall in Bylakuppe, Karnataka, India on 22 December 2017. Photo/Tenzin Phende/DIIR

President Dr Lobsang Sangay, Central Tibetan Administration also addressed the new arrivals and the participants of the workshop on Secular ethics.

In his talk, he emphasized that Middle Way is best approach to have win-win situation and expressed hope for positive changes to take place within China. “The present situation inside Tibet is indeed sad and unfortunate, but I am hopeful that in time, changes will take place within China.”

“We are seeking genuine autonomy for Tibet through non-violence and Chinese government can’t say no to this as it does not contradict China’s sovereignty and One China Policy,” he said.

Enumerating the practicality of Middle Way Approach, under the prevailing situation inside Tibet and exile, Dr Sangay highlighted the widespread support and appreciation expressed by world leaders for the policy envisioned by His Holiness the Dalai Lama.

The Tibet Question – Unity of Tibetan Territory is Most Important.

 

President of Central Tibetan Administration, Dr Lobsang Sangay addressing recently arrived Tibetan pilgrims from Tibet and Tibetan teachers gathered for a workshop on Secular Ethics in the Sera Lachi Assembly Hall in Bylakuppe, Karnataka, India on 22 December 2017. Photo/Tenzin Phende/DIIR

He further said, “Tibetan in exile practice full democracy rather than Chinese communist party of holding power by few people. Many of high-level authorities are mostly Chinese. So we seek to genuine autonomy, which is within framework of Peoples Republic of China’s constitution.”

President Dr Sangay urged people to invest in education rather than wasting money on luxury. “Since 2011, Kashag has given top priority to education and will continue to do so.”

Towards the end, he urged for the Tibetans to stay united. “Keeping differences aside, if we all work together, the dreams and the aspirations of the Tibetan people in Tibet and in exile will be fulfilled,” the President said.

filed by Correspondent Tenzin Phende-

The Tibet Question – Unity of Tibetan Territory is Most Important.

 

Tibetan teachers gathered for a workshop on Secular Ethics listening to His Holiness the Dalai Lama during their meeting at Sera Lachi Assembly Hall in Bylakuppe, Karnataka, India on December 22, 2017. Photo/Tenzin Phende/DIIR

The Tibet Question – Unity of Tibetan Territory is Most Important.

 

MONDAY, MAY 28, 2018 – UNKNOWN SOLDIER OF AMERICA PAYS TRIBUTE TO FALLEN FREEDOM FIGHTERS OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

MONDAY, MAY 28, 2018 – UNKNOWN SOLDIER OF AMERICA PAYS TRIBUTE TO FALLEN FREEDOM FIGHTERS OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

On Monday, May 28, 2018, Memorial Day, Living Tibetan Spirits pay tribute to fallen freedom fighters of Special Frontier Force. I trained at Special Frontier Force with US patronage to fight war in occupied Tibet to secure Freedom. This war qualifies me as ‘Unknown Soldier of America’ for the war serves to defend America from Enemy. While training for this US sponsored military mission, freedom fighters of Special Frontier Force gave their precious lives. Their mortal remains lie buried in unmarked graves in Chittagong Hill Tracts with none to pay respects with flowers.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

PRESIDENT DONALD J. TRUMP PROCLAIMS MEMORIAL DAY, MAY 28, 2018, AS A DAY OF PRAYER FOR PERMANENT PEACE

Monday, May 28, 2018, Memorial Day – Unknown Soldier of America pays tribute to fallen freedom fighters of Special Frontier Force.

Clipped from: https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/president-donald-j-trump-proclaims-memorial-day-may-28-2018-day-prayer-permanent-peace/

Monday, May 28, 2018, Memorial Day Proclamation by President Donald J. Trump.
Monday, May 28, 2018, Memorial Day – Unknown Soldier of America pays tribute to fallen freedom fighters of Special Frontier Force.

 

FREEDOM vs MEANINGFUL AUTONOMY IN OCCUPIED TIBET

FREEDOM vs MEANINGFUL AUTONOMY IN OCCUPIED TIBET

Freedom vs Meaningful Autonomy in Occupied Tibet.

At Special Frontier Force, I trained to fight war in occupied Tibet to secure Freedom. In my analysis, the struggle or resistance against occupation is not simply about political oppression or suppression or repression of Tibetans. The struggle for freedom includes desire to prevent economic exploitation of Tibet’s natural resources in name of growth and development.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

Freedom vs Meaningful Autonomy in Occupied Tibet. 5th International Rangzen Conference in Dharamsala.

FIFTH INTERNATIONAL RANGZEN CONFERENCE HELD IN DHARAMSHALA … TIBET SUN

Clipped from: https://www.tibetsun.com/news/2018/05/26/fifth-international-rangzen-conference-held-in-dharamshala#comment-5376

Freedom vs Meaningful Autonomy in Occupied Tibet.
Prominent Tibetan independence advocates Jamyang Norbu (left), Lhasang Tsering (second right), Tenzin Tsundue (right), and supporter Vijay Kranti during the opening of the Fifth International Rangzen Conference in Dharamshala, India, on 23 May 2018.

Prominent Tibetan independence advocates Jamyang Norbu (left), Lhasang Tsering (second right), Tenzin Tsundue (right), and supporter Vijay Kranti, during the opening of the Fifth International Rangzen Conference in Dharamshala, India, on 23 May 2018. Facebook

Tibet Sun Online News

Exile Tibetans supporting an independent Tibet held the Fifth International Rangzen Conference in Dharamshala, India, the capital of the Tibetan Diaspora.

The three-day conference which began on 23 May was attended by more than 100 exile Tibetans from India, Nepal, Europe, and the United States. The conference concluded on Friday.

Prominent independence advocates Jamyang Norbu, Lhasang Tsering, and Tenzin Tsundue, and Tibetologists Dibyesh Anand and Vijay Kranti, were among the attendees.

Tibetan spiritual leader the Dalai Lama met the participants at his residence in the morning of the last day of the conference.

The first Rangzen Conference was held in Dharamshala in 2012. Since then three more such conferences were held: Delhi in 2015, New York City in 2016, and Paris in 2017.

Unlike the official policy of the Central Tibetan Administration that seeks autonomy for Tibet within China, the independence advocates seek separation of Tibet from China, for a geographical area of 2.5 million square kilometres that constitute what Tibetans call the three provinces of Tibet — Amdo, Kham, and U-Tsang.

China occupied Tibet in 1959, which led to the flight of the Dalai Lama, then the spiritual and temporal leader of Tibet, into exile in India. He established the exile Tibetan administration in McLeod Ganj, a suburban village of Dharamshala in northern India.

In exile, the Dalai Lama initially rallied for an independent Tibet, but changed his stance to a policy called the “Middle-way” that advocates for Tibet to remain within China, but have greater freedom for Tibetans in administering their own affairs.

Freedom vs Meaningful Autonomy in Occupied Tibet.